If we talk about science, it is considered a civilized phenomenon that has worked to build nations for decades, and many scholars in many disciplines have struggled to communicate and generalize it, so that science has become a contributing phenomenon in building societies through the cognitive building of man, the formation of his mind, and changing his reality.
If we talk about philosophy and science together, they represent a strong link and link, where philosophers can influence their philosophical systems in building scientific knowledge and changing from a scientific system to another system.
The fundamental changes in science are always connected - over the course of centuries - with philosophical foundations. From this standpoint, the philosophy of science has become an inseparable concept from the historical dimensions of the phenomenon of science.
Science in the Arab East
The phenomenon of science started from the ancient sages of the ancient East - with the testimonies of many historians - who were the builders of the first human civilization, and the founders of experimental sciences, where they created the science of mathematics, astronomy, chemistry and medicine.
Iraq was the source of these wise men, as the Iraqis invented writing, established schools, studied calligraphy, preserved language, delved into all sciences, contemplated nature and its phenomena, and discussed the universe from philosophical perspectives such as: “creation, death, eternity, goodness and evil”, and other such topics with Philosophical character.
The scientific vision in Greece
Greek thought was famous for the close relationship between science and philosophy, as they found that they could not be separated. As a result, the Greeks delved into studies of astronomy, nature, life, and medicine.
As for the word itself, it means "absolute knowledge", whether it is derived from the senses, or from the mind and its principles. As for philosophy, it means "human knowledge."
In Greece, what is known as the "Ionian doctrine" appeared, and it is the first philosophical doctrine that was built on the basis of the "scientific experimental trend". It included a group of scientists who researched and deepened in the field of nature, and researched the system of creation of the universe and came up with one result, namely that everything in the world has The origin of one beginning, and that nothing comes from nothing, and that the assets around us do not exist, however long they may be.
This doctrine included a number of prominent philosophers, the first of whom was "Thales 624-524", who knew that every living thing came from water, and he was familiar with Babylonian records that illustrate the phenomenon of the eclipse of the sun, and he had his thoughts on the possibility of applying engineering rules in a general way.