Application of Wireless Technology in the Motor Industry

in #wireless3 years ago

Because of the high-mobility vehicles and the dynamic network signals, the autonomous cars need frequent information interaction during driving. Thus, it is necessary to establish a wireless communication environment with low delay and strong anti-interference ability between vehicles and roads, people, and cities. Communication technology is the key core technology of Internet of Vehicles, which determines the timeliness and effectiveness of information transmission. This article mainly discusses the application of short-range wireless technology in the process of automobile development.

I Development of Wireless Technology in the Automotive Industry

At the beginning, the wireless technology used in the automotive industry was infrared communication technology. Infrared communication technology is a kind of wireless communication technology that requires no physical connection, which is easy to use and has low implementation cost. However, it has short transmission distance and low transmission rate, so it’s only used in wireless locking.

Later, radio frequency identification(RFID) technology was adopted, which is a non-contact automatic identification technology that automatically identifies target objects and acquires relevant data through RF signals. The identification work can be performed without manual intervention in various severe environments. And this technology enables the implementation of automatic garage doors and the open or close of car door locks.

Then Bluetooth technology is used a short-range wireless communication technology. Bluetooth technology enables modern portable mobile communication devices to wirelessly access to Internet, so users can turn appliances, such as heaters and air conditioners, on and off wirelessly. 

                  

After, Bluetooth technology became a key function of infotainment system. Bluetooth connection delivers high-quality audios, and passengers can connect their portable devices to their cars to listen to their favorite music. However, the Bluetooth function does not provide users with information about the external and internal environment of the vehicle through the connected applications.

Finally there is Wi-Fi, a technology that can achieve the wireless interconnection among terminals such as personal computers and handheld devices (such as Pads and mobile phones). It provides a powerful data pipe for screen projection technology, enabling the seamlessly connection between the smartphones and cars. 

II Application of Wireless Technology in the Internet of Vehicles

Vehicle to everything (V2X) requires a framework to meet the rapidly expanding compliance and certification requirements of connection protocols and sensor control algorithms. V2X communication includes two communication methods: vehicle-to-vehicle(V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) . 

2.1 V2V Communication

Running vehicles can send signals to the drivers through V2V communication and warn them that there is danger ahead. For example, if a car suddenly breaks down for avoiding obstacles, it can send wireless messages to nearby vehicles to inform them of the situation. These vehicles can then slow down or change lanes accordingly.  

V2V is a redesigned form of the IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi protocol with lower latency and higher security. The operating frequency of the WAVE to the IEEE802.11p in vehicle environment approaches 5.9 GHz, supporting data rates of 27 Mbps. When the messages received by the passing vehicle, they can be transmitted on the WAVE by V2V communication to expand the communication range. Besides, Roadside beacons using Bluetooth can convey information about local features, which is very convenient for people who use the built-in Wi-Fi to find such information on the Internet. 

2.2 V2I communication

The V2I communication provides roadside controllers with latest information on the condition of vehicles. Traffic lights send information to the vehicles, telling them when it is possible to change state, and the vehicles passing through the intersection send the information to the vehicle nearby, which reduces the attrition and saves fuel.

In the future, wireless signals can significantly improve the flow of autonomous vehicles. Traffic lights can monitor the conditions at intersections and regulate the traffic.

V2I can communicate with many security applications, digital marking plates, and cellular telecommunications and share information about traffic conditions to reduce congestion.The Internet of Vehicles combines wireless technologies such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) with advanced 3G/4G LTE technology, providing functions like media streams, parking assistance, 3D navigation, voice recognition, as well as facial recognition. 

III Efficient Road Navigation Based on Digital Data

Wireless technologies for automobiles include Bluetooth, GPS, Wi-Fi, RFID, and the like. Wireless communication allows the driver to accurately locate himself and transmit information with low latency for efficient navigation.

Modern navigation technology allows users to easily navigate by using the GPS/GLONASS system. These systems use the mobile applications to inform drivers of the route and remind them of  the danger ahead. Therefore, an alarm signal will be started in the event of an accident, which speeds up the rescue activities and keeps the road clear.

The Internet of Things, combined with smart sensor technology, provides efficient inventory management and service and maintenance plans for connecting vehicles. A sensor designed for a specific application detects the status of the backup devices and sends an warning to the service provider, who can then schedule the repair work.

Today, wireless technology is safe, reliable, efficient and convenient. We can connect smartphones and other smart devices to the car by using communications such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. Mobile devices are paired with the infotainment system, and the infotainment system responds to voice commands. Through this, drivers answer the call while driving without hands.The Internet of Things and the new communications network provide effective management for smart driving, and in the near future, vehicles will be connected to virtually every physical objects in the cloud.