Stephen Hawking's last theory
Stephen Hawking died March 7 last year. About a month and a half later, on May 2, a journal of his research was published in the Journal of High Energy Physics. This study, jointly with Thomas Hartog, a professor of cosmology at Catholic University Leuven, sheds light on new theories of the origin and development of the universe. In July of last year, Hartog discussed the new theory at a conference at the University of Cambridge, Hocking's 5th birthday.
The theory behind the evolution of the universe is the theory of eternal inflation. In light of this theory, the universe undergoes a periodic exponential inflation in the fraction of seconds after Bigbang. Then the process slows down and the energy is converted into matter and radiation. But experts believe that inflation started, but it never stopped in the public domain. It is assumed that in some regions of the universe, quantum-influenced inflation is going on like a permanent bubble and overall inflation is permanent. In light of this, our observable universe is a pocket inhabited by the entire universe, where inflation has stopped and stars and galaxies have been born. An infinite number of universes, or multivers, are emerging through inflation in other bubbles of space. According to this theory, the universe we observe is just such a bubble.
Hawking noted in an interview, "According to conventional theory, the entire universe is like an infinite fractal, where mosaics of the pocket universe have originated in different places. They are separated by an ocean of inflation. Locally the sources of physics and chemistry may be different in different pocket universes, and they are made up of multiverses. However, I have never been a fan of multiverse. If the scale of the Universe is different or infinite in the different pockets of the multiverse, then this theory will not be testable. ”
In the new study, Hawking and Hartog cite the theory of perpetual inflation in the origin of the universe as incorrect. One problem with inflation theory is that it imagines a background universe that evolves according to Einstein's general theory of relativity, and quantum effects exist as small deviations. However, the fallacy of perpetual inflation fails to distinguish between the theory of quantum and quantum, making it difficult to establish Einstein's theory.
According to Hawking, the universe is smooth and finely tuned. They explain their theory according to string theory. String theory is a branch of theoretical physics where gravity and general relativity are integrated into the light of quantum theory and are seen as vibrating strings. These tiny vibrating fibers are considered as the structural units of the universe. According to their ideas, the universe can be imagined as a three-dimensional hologram that can be mathematically projected onto a two-dimensional screen.
Hawking and Hartog established a special variation of this theory of holography and separated 'time' from permanent inflation as a dimension. As a result, the theory of perpetual inflation does not have to rely on Einstein's theory anymore. In their new theory, timeless inflation is bound to prematurely bound to a spatial surface. In this regard, Hartog said, "We have reached the opposite point in the evolution of the universe to a point where the idea of time becomes unnecessary." In 9 Hawking and another physicist James Hartl jointly established the 'no boundary theory' as the Hartle-Hawking theory. Known. Hartk said, "The borderless theory assumed that if you go to the opposite point in time and get to the starting point of the universe, you will find the universe as a tiny sphere." The new study, however, offers a slightly different perspective. Now we want to say that in the past there was a boundary of the universe. "
Hawking and Hartog use their new theory to determine reliable estimates of the overall structure of the universe. In their view, it is much simpler and finer than previously thought that the universe was thought to be such a complex infinite and fractal structure, in the theory of perpetual inflation. If other tests confirm the validity of this theory, it will propagate the idea of multiverse in a completely different direction. This makes the multivariate theory more accurate and useful for testing.