Morpho-evolutionary characteristics of the main Magnoliophytas of agronomic and economic interest

in steemstem •  2 months ago 


In this publication, the main plant groups of agronomic and economic interest are described, indicating aspects concerning their classification, distribution, morphology and agro-technical management relationships. Under the premise of socializing unpublished images of the plant material subject to study, we hope it will be of great academic contribution, and to the liking of the members of the SteemSTEM community.

Introduction

The Magnoliophyta, previously designated as angiosperms, artificially is a division that groups plant species with flowers, in whose seeds is enclosed and protected the embryo or new individual, this group is currently considered as the most dominant within the existing flora on planet earth, this by, the number of species inventoried, recorded and assigned to the division, specifically evolved vascular plants characterized by presenting xylem composed of specialized conductive elements such as trachea and tracheides, phloem by sieve tubes and sieve cells.

In addition to the specificity of the xylem and phloem conducting elements, Magnoliophyta plants have in their female reproductive system (pistil), a morpho-organographic structure called stigma, whose biological design is perfectly adapted to receive the pollen contained in the stamens (segment of the male reproductive system), on the other hand, these plants are characterized by double fertilization mediated by pollinating agents, additionally the sporophyte differs in; root, stem and leaves.

Fig. 2 Hermaphrodite flower of Magnoliophyta species of arvenous behaviour S/I is observed, in the right segment, female reproductive flower (pistil) and stamens (male reproductive system) are detailed. Author: @lupafilotaxia.

Now then, knowing the utilitarian importance of the Magnoliophyta division, the objective of the present post is to present the description of the main plant groups of agronomic and economic interest, socializing to a great extent their classification, distribution, morphology and agro-technical management relations.

Magnoliophyta Division

Taxonomically in the Magnoliophyta or Angiosperma division, two large groups have been established, whose systematic identification corresponds to the designations of the following classes:

Liliopsida

The taxon Liliopsida, includes in its totality the current Monocotyledonous, from the morpho-evolutionary point of view, the vegetal species of this group are characterized, for having a common ancestor, determined for having a single cotyledon, grain of pollen monocolpado, besides specific morphological and anatomical characteristics, as for example, radical system constituted by fibrous roots, absence of vascular cambium, for what, in its vegetative development they do not present secondary growth.

Other elements that also characterize, to the species of the class Liliopsida, is that their flowers are constituted in multiples of three (triers), present/display sessile or sheathing leaves in their majority with parallel nervure, and generally in the basal part of the stem it takes place, or a rhizome, or a small discoidal structure in form of bulb, both structures guarantee the survival of the vegetative buds during unfavorable times.

Magnoliopsida

This group includes exclusively the plant species, currently designated as dicotyledonous, characterized by possessing very primitive characteristics, in other words, are plants with characteristics little evolved, on the other hand, the Magnoliopsida from the taxonomic point of view have been the ancestor of the Liliopsida.

Among the main morphological attributes of the Magnoliopsid species are the presence of two cotyledons, tricolored pollen, essentially pivotal roots, morpho-anatomical structure of roots and stems with vascular cambium, mainly peciolated insertion leaf blades, reticulated rib or pinnatinervia and, unlike the Monocotyledonous, their flowers are tetrameras or pentameras.

Fig. 3 Pentamera flower of the species Carica papaya. Author: @lupafilotaxia.

Agro-economic benefits of Magnoliophytas

GROUP – Monocotyledonous

The agro-economic usefulness of monocotyledonous species is impressive, with cereals being one of the main species with the largest cultivated area, nutritional contributions and economic profitability.

Poaceae

The species that belong to the Poaceae family, previously identified as Gramíneas, this group includes perhaps the most valuable agro-economic for man, since they represent all the cereals destined to human consumption, including fodder species that have nutritional value for livestock. With regard to the morphological characteristics of fundamental recognition of the Poaceae, it is their condition of herbaceous plants and annual phenological duration, with the exception of some plants such as bamboo, characterized by its woody consistency and perennial behavior, other attributes assigned to these species, is that they exhibit cylindrical stems, adventitious, fibrous roots of rhizome or stolon type, sessile or sheathing leaf blades, alternate, distiches and with parallelinervia venation, and inflorescences in the form of spikes, clusters or panicles.

Liliaceae

They are plants of herbaceous biotype, occasionally bushy or arboreal, with generally underground stems in the form of bulbs, rhizomes or tubers. It is important to point out that the species of the family Liliaceae can present epigeous stems with annual duration, with commonly linear leaves and parallelinerval ribbing, although they sometimes exhibit reticulated nerves, in relation to the reproductive system, their flowers are hermaphroditic (rarely unisexual), actinomorphic, triangular, and usually, the perianth whorls form a petaloid perigonium, ovary ordinarily supero, tricarpellar and trilocular, fruits in capsule or berry.

Musaceae

The Musaceae, represent a family of economically very important vegetal species, are of herbaceous biotype, some of arboreal aspect, underground stem in form of rhizome or corm, of which numerous adventitious roots originate, exhibit a false stem denominated pseudostem, consisting of leaf blades enclosed at the bottom by fallen leaf sheaths, of alternate phyllotaxy, fairly robust petiole with an enlarged base and sheath, blade with pinnatinervia veins, with hermaphrodite or unisexual flowers, trilocular ovary and fruit in the form of an epigeneal berry.

Fig. 4 Musaceae FHIA 21 clone epigine berry. Author: @lupafilotaxia.

Araceae

They comprise all known palms, characterized morphologically by a semi-woody consistency, perennial growth, generally unbranched stem, pinnate or webbed leaf blades, pods typically grouped in a terminal rosette, large leaf blades, alternate and spiral phyllotaxy, sheathing insertion at the base with an elongated and erect petiole, hermaphrodite or unisexual flowers, drupe type fruit and rarely dehiscent.

GROUP – Dicotyledonous

Fabaceae

They are identified as plants either of herbaceous, shrub or tree biotype, leaf blades generally with composite division, alternate, frequently pinnate or trifoliate, and almost always provided with stipulations, racemose or paniculate inflorescences, flowers mostly zygomorphic, with 5 partially united petals, legume fruit sometimes indehiscent.

Solanaceae

The plant species, grouped in the family Solanaceae, include within the dicotyledonous, the group of greater agronomic and economic importance, to be constituted by more than 2.000 species that can provide high values of carbohydrates, in terms of botanical characteristics, are species of herbaceous biotype, erect or climbing, annual or perennial duration, in some cases form shrubs and small trees, with leaf blades of alternate phyllotaxy, without stipulations, bisexual flowers, mostly floral units in multiples of 5, as far as sepals are concerned, these are displayed partially united, and often persist in the fruit which is a berry, inside which it contains numerous agronomically viable seeds.

Cucurbitaceae

The group of plants of this family Cucurbitaceae, is constituted of specimens of herbaceous biotype, of creeping and climbing behavior, phytomechanical action that they exert by means of cauline tendrils, simple foliar laminae, alternate phyllotaxy, unisexual flowers, differentiating the male ones with traces of gynoecium, generally monoecious, gamopetals, pentameras, double perianth, free stamens, which can be found united by filaments or anthers, ovary and berry-peppered.

Fig. 5 Cucurbita maxima berry seed type fruit. Author: @lupafilotaxia.

Ructaceae

The family Ructaceae, groups the fruit species representative of the citrus fruits, these plants are of woody biotype, simple or compound foliar laminae and devoid of stipulations, with oil-producing phytoglands, generally perfect and regular flowers, composed of 4 - 5 petals and 4 - 5 sepals, stamens in double number of the petals and fruit in capsule, drupe or berry.

Verbenaceae

The Verbenaceae species are known for their usefulness in wood, hence their economic importance in activities aimed at the manufacture of wood-based structures, the taxon includes certain shrub and herbaceous species, highly lignified woody stems, branches with a tetragonal morphology, leaf blades with opposite phyllotaxis and, in some species, with a verticilated condition, inflorescences of diverse appearance and fruits of the schizocarp category.

Fig. 6 Woody stem segment - Tectona grandis wood. Author: @lupafilotaxia.

SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF THIS PUBLICATION


  • The information socialized in the present post, groups taxonomic and agro-economic elements, useful for professions of the agricultural production area that make life in the Steem platform, when presenting elements like; taxonomic characters of the Magnoliophyta division, highlighting the attributes of the taxon Liliopsida (Monocotyledonous) and Magnoliopsida (Dicocotyledonous), besides presenting the morphological characterization of the main families of agronomic and economic interest, among these; Poaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae, Araceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Ructaceae and Verbenaceae.


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES CONSULTED AND CITED:


[1] Bell C., Soltis D., Soltis P. The age and diversification of the angiosperms re‐revisited. American Journal of Botany. 2010; 97;8: 1296–1303. Article: Online access

[2] Doll J., Cardenas J., Reyes C. Malezas tropicales. IPPC, Bogotá, Colombia. 1974; 336p. Article: Online access

[3] Gentry H. Diversity and floristic composition of neotropical dry forests. En: Bullock S., Mooney H., y Medina E., (Eds.). Cambridge University Press. 1995; 146-194. Article: Online access

[4] Parsons R. Monocotyledonous geophytes: comparison of California with Victoria, Australia. Australian Journal of Botany. 2000; 48: 39–43. Article: Online access

[5] Zeng L., Zhang Q., and Sun R. Resolution of deep angiosperm phylogeny using conserved nuclear genes and estimates of early divergence times. Nat Commun. 2014; 5:4956. Article: Online access


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