With the phenomenon of light we have been able to visualize, analyze, and thus understand any space-time of our environment, therefore, we can clearly say that through the implementation of learning the phenomenon of light, and above all, its spectral fraction visible to our eyes, man through its rich scientific-technological history has achieved exponential advances, and which we implement daily.
For the structuring of our essential electromagnetic spectrum, we had as main axis the spectral fraction corresponding to the visible light rays for our natural optical systems such as our eyes, this fraction of white or visible light in addition to allowing us to move their understanding to other imperceptible radiations to our eyes as we could observe with ultraviolet rays, X-rays, gamma, infrared, microwaves and radio waves, has also allowed us to create essential optical instruments that have left their deepest mark in our dizzying development.
In relation to the above described, in this opportunity we will know in a general way some optical instruments of great value and utility in our lives, and where, the luminous rays have played an essential role, then, it is important that in the first place we can express that any type of image that we can visualize in our environment, is thanks to the action of our spectral fraction of white or visible light and its component beams of luminous rays.
Let us remember that any particle, body or object around us emits light rays in all directions, and these rays propagate in a straight line in the form of a wave, as geometrical-physical optics has taught us. During this propagation, many phenomena are developed, among which we can find diffraction, absorption, reflection and refraction.
On this occasion we will make a journey through time in order to find some wonderful optical instruments such as the traditional compound microscope, binoculars, telescopes, camera, video camera, sextants, overhead projector and LCD projector, each of them representing complex optical instruments and which are equipped with essential and particular optical elements such as mirrors, lenses and prisms, then observe some examples of these optical elements in the following figure 1.
Figure 1. Lenses, mirrors and prisms
In the previous figure 1, we can visualize some types of lenses, mirrors and an optical prism, as for the mirror we can say that due to its polished surface it is possible to reflect the light rays carrying the images around us, of the lenses we can express that they constitute crystalline or transparent media, and that through them we can bend, misalign or deflect the light rays, that is to say, refract the light, and as for the observed prism, we can emphasize that with this type of optical element we can decompose the white light into its component colors as shown in figure 1.
With the above optical elements, man through his history and with the implementation of all the learning obtained from the phenomenon of light has managed to structure the most wonderful and useful optical instruments, therefore, let's start with our general description of some of them.
The traditional compound microscope
Undoubtedly if we want to highlight the essential application of light rays, it is important to start our tour with this type of optical instrument, and the same for its great utility, we can find it in various private laboratories or in our academies, where various learning is taught in the area of biology, chemistry, microbiology, embryology, among others, referring to the importance of the application of the phenomenon of light is necessary to relate generally with the optical system of this instrument and the same can be seen in the following figure 2.
Figure 2. Optical system of a compound microscope
In the previous figure 2, we could observe both the mechanical system and the optical system of a traditional compound microscope, from the optical system we can say that it is constituted by the condenser which is composed of a series of lenses, this element is located under the stage and whose function is to concentrate and regulate the light passing through it to the sample or specimen.
Similarly, the objective lenses are observed, and through their resolving power they are able to establish the quality and sharpness of the image transported by the luminous rays upon impact with the sample or specimen, as we can see, the objectives are made up of both convergent and divergent lenses and this wonderful combination has allowed the elimination of any type of aberrations that could originate when the lenses refract the luminous rays that pass through them.
Another component of the optical system is the eyepiece, and it is the one that is closer to our eyes when viewing or detailing a particular sample or specimen, in this part of the microscope we can see the generation of a second image and it will be larger, virtual and thus not inverted (right), over time has been improved and refined to this type of optical instrument thanks to the constant advances in the area of technology.
In this opportunity we will relate in a general way with one of the most recognized optical instruments such as cameras, and this type of instrument is based on the principle of the camera obscura by implementing the light rays emitted by any particle, body or object around us.
In fact, many advances have been made to this type of optical device over time, so it is important to relate to the essential components of a traditional camera as shown in Figure 3 below.
Figure 3. Essential components of a traditional photographic camera
In the previous figure 3, we relate to vital components necessary for the treatment of the light rays transporting the images to be captured on the photosensitive film or digital sensor depending on the case or type of camera, in general we can say that the lens allows us to have a better focus of the body or object emitting the light rays, the diaphragm regulates the amount of light entering through the lens and the shutter is the element responsible for controlling the time in which the light hits the photosensitive film or digital sensor.
Now it is important to relate to the reflex camera and it allows us to visualize the image in the same way as it will be captured in the photosensitive support of this optical device, let's know the internal components that make the light rays reach our eyes and then be captured in the photosensitive plate, as you can see below in the following figure 4.
Figure 4. Optical elements of a reflex camera
Essential optical elements are observed in the previous figure 4, and they allow the application of light in the generation of any type of image or photograph, from this type of optical device we make another leap to another vital optical instrument in our lives, that is, the video camera or camcorder, and the same allows us to generate images with movements through the implementation of light.
The video camera or camcorder
Of this type of optical instrument we will analyze in a general way its optical system because it is in this that the phenomenon of light affects for the purpose of generating images, in general we can express that all these devices leaving aside both its electronic complexity and its recording system, are structured by three important parts such as the lens, the imaging device and the viewfinder, this we can see in the following figure 5.
Figure 5. General components of a camcorder
In the previous figure 5, we could visualize the components described above, where the lens is composed of a set of lenses, and through this we can focus on certain space-time of our environment, as for the imaging device, it is the most important part of the device, because it transforms the optical image obtained from our environment, in electrical signals, and for this implements the prism and the CCD (Charge Transfer Device).
The prism is made up of some filters that manage to disperse or separate the white light into the three primary colors RGB (Red, Green, Blue) as shown in the previous figure, then sends this information to the charge transfer device (CCD), where this device is made up of a large number of pixels arranged in rows and columns, and thus we obtain the image in mosaic form.
The viewfinder is the part through which we can visualize the action of the moving images (video) and thus be able to witness what is being done, as we can see in the following figure 6.
Figure 6. Video camera
In the previous figure 6, you could see one of the most popular optical tools (video camera) in recent years and even more when included in cell phones, this aspect highlights the great influence of light rays in each of the optical instruments designed by man throughout history, but, let's continue with our tour and see other instruments influenced by light rays.
This type of optical instrument like those described above, implements the light rays in order to observe bodies or objects at long distances, is equipped with essential optical elements such as mirrors and a viewfinder inside which we can find the action of some lenses, these elements are responsible for the treatment of light rays carrying images that are observed through this instrument, but let's look at this beautiful optical device in the following figure 7.
Figure 7. El Sextante
In the previous figure 7, we can visualize the action of the luminous rays in each of the optical components of this wonderful instrument achieving the alignment of the superimposed image of the Sun with the horizon, this device is widely implemented in the nautical world, and it is also possible to make through this astronomical observations with the purpose of being able to establish a certain geographical position at the moment of being navigating, although at the moment we have known the GPS, the sextant is another splendid instrument that through our history was based on the acquired knowledge of the phenomenon of the light and its essential visible fraction for our eyes.
In this opportunity we will observe another type of optical instrument that many of us have been able to know and implement, and the same as the previous instruments implements the light for its purpose, before referring to an LCD projector I want to show an old instrument that started the activity of projecting images, but in a way without movement or sound, this instrument is called the overhead projector, then you can see in the following figure 8.
Figure 8. The old overhead projector
From the old overhead projector we moved to the modern LCD projector and the same of great impact in many of our activities due to its practical use in presentations of images and also with sound and movement, therefore, it is common to observe it in our academies and in any type of companies for presentations to large groups of work.
In order to highlight the influence of light in this instrument we must express that it has in its optical system elements such as; mercury lamp, flat mirrors (3) and dichroic (2), LCD panels (3), a prism and a lens which ends up projecting the image or video on a receiving screen, this can be seen below in the following Figure 9.
Figure 9. LCD Project
In the previous figure 9, we could observe the action of the luminous rays in a LCD projector, and through them the generation of images, now we will know another optical instrument of great impact on the activities of humanity due to its relationship with the study of our external universe and all the celestial bodies that are there, therefore, our instrument is the Newtonian reflecting telescope.
This time we will link with this great instrument as is the Newtonian reflecting telescope, I wanted to highlight this type of telescope by the fact that the great Sir Isaac Newton is credited with the development of the first type of these telescopes, also its relationship with reflector is due to the implementation of mirrors in its optical system, where, one of them is curved and placed at the bottom of the optical tube, and another small flat mirror placed in an inclined way with the purpose of reflecting the luminous rays towards the eyepiece, but let's see the action of the light rays when entering the interior of the same in the following figure 10.
Figure 10. Newtonian reflecting telescope
In the previous figure 10, we could observe a type of telescope in this case the Newtonian reflecting telescope, it is also possible to find a refracting type telescope by the implementation of only lenses inside it, that is, in its optical system, the truth is that with these majestic instruments we have been able to visualize, study and thus learn about our outer space, and all this thanks to the essential influence of the fraction of visible light in this optical instrument.
My friend readers, to close this wonderful journey related to the essential influence of the visible light spectrum in important optical instruments designed by man throughout its history, we will show the binoculars, perhaps most of us have had the opportunity to have one of these devices and have enjoyed its great utility, and the same as all previous instrument implements light to capture the images around us.
This type of instrument has in its interior optical elements such as lenses and prisms, which allow to capture the action of light when it enters inside and thus generate the image that we can project on our retina, then we can observe a type of binoculars such as the Porro binoculars and notice the effect of light entering it as shown in Figure 11 below.
Figure 11. Porro Binoculars
In the previous figure 11, we were able to witness the path of the light rays inside a Porro binocular (because it has Porro prisms), and thus consolidate the information related to the subject raised, and in this way we were able to demonstrate in a practical and didactic way the influence of the visible light spectrum in each of these exceptional optical devices, and they have allowed us to continue learning about our environment both the closest and microscopic as well as the most distant as it is our outer universe and its celestial bodies.
Once structured our electromagnetic spectrum and having as a fundamental basis the fraction of white or visible light, this referential fraction, in addition to structuring our electromagnetic spectrum, has allowed us to apply it in numerous optical instruments created by man through its rich scientific-technological history.
Therefore, with our spectral fraction of visible light we can say that we have managed to conquer any kind of knowledge through time, and the optical instruments described here are reliable examples of the above described, each of them with their particular characteristics and functionality, but all of them have in common the implementation of the phenomenon of light in its visible spectrum for our natural optical systems such as our eyes.
We made a general tour of wonderful and useful optical tools such as; the traditional compound microscope, the photographic camera, video camera, sextant, overhead projector, LCD projector, reflecting telescope and binoculars, each and every one of them work thanks to the due action of the light rays emitted by any particle, body or object of our exterior, and as it has been expressed these light rays are the transport of the images that are projected on our retinas once they pass through all the optical systems essential components of these instruments, and of course, also pass through our natural lenses such as the cornea and the lens.
Highlighting the development of important intrinsic phenomena such as the reflection and refraction of these light rays as they propagate from the emitting body to our retinas, in this way we have and will continue to observe everything around us and this is thanks to the essential action of the spectral fraction of white light or visible to our artificial optical instruments as described here, and also to our natural optical systems such as our eyes.
Until another delivery my appreciated readers of Hive.blog, specially to the members of the great community of #Stemsocial, which receives the support of another wonderful community like #curie, reason why I recommend widely to be part of this exemplary project, since they allow us to emphasize the wonderful task of the academy and the enormous work of all the field of science.
Note: All images were created using Paint and Power Point applications and the animated gif was created using PhotoScape.