The skeletal system is one of the vital organs in human and other higher mammals. The components of bone, teeth and cartilages form the organ of the skeletal system. Of these, the hardest structure of the bony system is the teeth. Each of the components of the skeletal system has special function.
The function of the Bone
When we consider the bony structure, the skull and the head form many bones and are led by the spine or the vertebral column which descend down the other parts of the skeleton.
The vertebral column is made up of five (5) groups of bones namely : cervical - along the neck, thoracic - the area of the chest, lumber, sacral and coccygeal - down the tail region. The main function of the bone in the skeletal system is as follows:
1• The bone gives rigidity and support to the body. The means that, without the bone, the fresh of mammalian structure can't hold on it own. Hence, the bone is said to give structure to the whole physical structure of the body.
2• The bone provide protection to the vital internal organs like the digestive system, the lungs 🫁 and heart which just below the thoracic, the liver and other lymphatic system.
3• The bone acts as levers for locomotion. Without the bone structure, it's therefore difficult for movement, especially stretching of the hind and limbs, the twisting of the neck and wrist are dependent on the bones.
4• The bone serve as a site for blood formation, the red and white blood cells are found in the bone marrows. without the bone, the blood has no place to live.
5• The bones aid in storing vital minerals like calcium and irons for strong bone formation and production of haemoglobin respectively.
6• The bone provides surface for attachment of muscles and framework for the body.
The teeth: In human dentition, the structure of the teeth consist of the arrangements, the types and function of the teeth in the buccal cavity of mammals and other higher animals. Like I have already mentioned, the teeth is the hardest structure of the human skeletal system.
Function of the teeth
1• Teeth are the viral organ for mastication or chewing. In fact, apart from the enzymic digestion of food, physical disintegration or breakdown of food is done with the teeth.
2• Especially in farm animals, the teeth are used to estimate the age of farm animals.
The structure of the teeth are the enamel, dentine, pulp cavity, cement and the sensory nerves. Of these structure, the enamel is the outermost part and the most hardest part which calcareous and function as protecting the dentine and the pulp cavity where most activities like absorption of oxygen, nutrients and blood flow. Of course the sensory nerves function and sending impulsive messages to the brain when there is some detection of problem like sharp pin and injury of the affected part.
Classification of bones
bones can be classified base one their structure and shapes:
1• We have long bones, example are thigh bone (femer) , ulna and radius ( arm bone), Tibia and Fibula
2• Short bones, examples are carpel ( wrist bone)
3• Flat bones eg scapula( shoulder blade and pelvic.
4• The irregular bones eg vertebral
The skull forms the basis of the head and protect the brain. It is also one the hardest bone that covers our thinking faculties, that's the cerebrum, cerebellum and the coordination of the spinal cord. The skull supports many sense organs for example the eyes and the ear. Most of the observable species for as the head is concerned, depends on variations or differences ßosf the facial part of the skull. The skull can be said to form the passages for the beginning of the the digestive and respiratory system.
Note the facial part can be grouped into the Orbital and Nasal or Orals. The orbitals host the eye balls and its numerous nerves. The nasals are the nose area where the outer or external is mostly cartilage. Among the orals, we have the mandible, that's the upper stationary and the lower movable parts.
The skeletal system have numerous structure and this is just the beginning. We can't complete in one lesson. So we will find time to delve into the rest of the components in our subsequent lessons. Thanks for your attention.