Greetings dear @stemsocial community. Again with you with on our science related studies. Yesterday we were able to cover some of parasites that infest our farm animals and even humans, either being endoparasites or ectoparasites. We are still on the concept of animal welfare and some ot their management practices. Since both animals and humans come from the same kingdom of Animalia (mammals) most things are related as zoonotic diseases can be transferred from animals to humans and vise-versa.
Today, our studies and research is on "Some basic concept of animal's health."
"Without wasting much time, let's delve into the concept of animal health...."
According to EFSA
"The concept of animal health covers animal diseases, as well as the interplay between animal welfare, human health, environment protection and food safety"
Let's also understand that "Health is the organisms state of physical and mental conditions or state of being free from ill health and suffer from any injury." Like humans, our health status can be complete of we can physically move and do our usual work, if we have a sound mind devoid of any stress.
We need to know that before an animal would be attack by a disease, it might have been exposed to certain factors, what we generally refer to as "Predisposing factors" Predisposing factors are simply factors that would lead animal easily being infested with diseases if we expose the animal to. Predisposing factors can also be positive factors which would turn to increase the animals health status.
Certain factors such as conducive environment, good drinking water, good feeding plan, timely vaccination of farm animals such as deworming of animals and good record keeping are all natural things that would either predispose the animal to diseases or not. For instance of the cattle kraal and poultry pens are not cleaned regularly, it's like to cause coccidiosis outbreak. when there is too much wet and water drainage are improper, foot rots is likely to invade in the cattle's kraal and sheep pens.
Feeding is such vital for farm animals, not just feeding of farm animals with any feed. For instance, contaminated beans and maize grains with beetles can easily cause aflatoxin and may cause animals to be sick. The animal's feed should be mixed with good nutrients such as concentrate, bone meals, oyster shells, cereals and corporal cake for good growth.
A disease is a state or conditional changes in farm animals as result of certain microorganisms such as virus and bacteria which would cause detrimental to the health status of the farm animals.
What therefore accounts for disease outbreak in farm animals are some of the predisposing factors we mentioned. When the farm animals are exposed to bad conditions, poor feed and bad treatment of pests and diseases, it breaks the immune system of farm animals and later the animals become susceptible to diseases.
Dealing with pathogens: Pathogens are disease causing organisms that cause diseases in farm animals which finally cause farm animals to die. Some of the disease causing organisms are viruses, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes.
As animal health science, We have to do anything possible to support our farm animals to build immune system to withstand some of these pathogens. Why do we even sit for the pathogens to attack our farm animals before we find measures to control the the diseases. In the tropics our main challenges is the high weather which help pathogens to multiply and cause a lot of diseases. So, it's always advisable to provide a enough shades, if possible the animal housing should be full of ventilators. The roof can be thatch of bamboos which is poor conductors of heat. Pigs pen should be provided with place where the animals can wallow during hot weathers. Overcrowding should be discouraged in the pens of animals. Allow floor spacing about few cm to support animals breath. Disinfect the pens regularly to avoid bacterial outbreak. Provisions of good drinking water at regular time is very important. This can help regulate the body temperature of farm animals. At temperature above 20°c expose the animals to excessive stress and dehydration.
"Knowing our animals signs of good health and I'll health..."
As a good farmer, you should know the good health and ill health of your animals. A sick animal is easily noticed as well as good healthy animals from the flock. When the your animals show some sign of diarrhoea in faeces especially in goals must be pellets, not eating or drinking normally, always isolating itself from the flock, milk production going down as in cattle. water oozing from the noses, increase in temperature are all signs of ill health of your animals.
As quickly as possible, the farmer should find immediate intervention to prevent disease outbreak. Good health of animals might be eating regularly, bright and clear eyes, dry nostrils, chewing the cud as in the case of ruminants. We should be conscious and study any little changes of the animals health.