Perspectives, as well as the structure and function of the brain

in StemSocial3 months ago


from PxHere

Guys, bear with me while I present a new perspective on this issue. Although there are bound to be many scientific terms used in this article about brain anatomy, I will do my best to write it in a way that is clear and understandable without watering down the article's scholarly rigour. Let's not waste any time; shall we launch into action now?

The brain is the large mass of neural tissue in the head of most animals. The brain is in charge of processing sensitive data and planning the body's responses. The brain is also the main site of learning in higher vertebrates. Brain cells, also known as neurons, number in the billions, and the average adult brain weigh about three pounds (1.4 kg). Synapses are junctions between neurons that allow electrical and chemical signals to be passed from one neuron to the next in the brain. This operation underlies sensory processes and is crucial to cognitive tasks such as learning, memory formation, and thought formation.

Young, tube-shaped lower vertebrate brains are structurally and functionally analogous to those of higher animals. The brain can be divided into the occipital lobe, the temporal lobe, and the parietal lobe. Although the brains of higher vertebrates go through many changes while still in the uterus, these three sections remain distinct from one another.

The pons and the medulla oblongata make up the hindbrain. The medulla controls important autonomic processes like breathing and heart rate and sends information to the spinal cord and higher brain as well. The pons is a region of the brain that has pathways connecting the cerebral cortex and cerebellum and cell groups that help with communication between the two. The pons also includes cell groups that help with communication between the cerebellum and spinal cord.

In fish and frogs, the midbrain developed from an expansion of the optic lobes, suggesting that this area has always been a key node in the processing of sensory data. In addition, it has a role to perform in how animals and reptiles adapt to their surroundings. Mammals have a greatly diminished midbrain, with its primary role being to act as a bridge between the rear and forebrain.

The cerebellum has significant neural connections to the medulla, pons, and midbrain. The cerebellum is linked to the rest of the brain's limbic and insular systems via the basal ganglia. This "little brain" is relatively big in humans and is responsible for producing smooth, synchronized motions of our muscle groups, allowing us to maintain balance and avoid injury. This "little brain" orchestrates our muscles to move in a fluid, synchronized fashion.

The brainstem, which contains the hypothalamus and thalamus, is considered part of the forebrain along with the cerebral lobes. The hypothalamus is a major control centre for many visceral processes, including sexual drive, joy, pain, hunger, thirst, blood pressure, and temperature, and the thalamus is the main communication centre between the medulla and the brain. The hypothalamus is responsible for secreting hormones like oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone, which are then stored in and released by the posterior pituitary gland in addition to regulating the discharges generated by the anterior pituitary gland.

The cerebrum, which is seen as a component of the olfactory lobes but now plays a role in the more complex processes of the human brain, was originally responsible for smelling things. The cerebrum has expanded over the remainder of the brain in humans and other sophisticated vertebrates, creating a convoluted (wrinkled) layer of grey matter. This growth has occurred over evolutionary time. The extent of the body plays a role in determining the degree to which the body is convoluted. In general, the brains of smaller animals, such as marmosets and lesser anteaters, are smoother than the brains of larger mammals, such as whales, elephants, and dolphins, which are typically very complicated.

The brain is split down the centre by a large gap called the longitudinal cerebral fissure. The corpus callosum, a thick network of nerve impulses, is located at the base of this fissure. Responsibility for facilitating communication between hemispheres of the brain falls on it. The medulla or, less frequently, the spinal cord acts as a crossroads for nerve signals, allowing the left side of the brain to exert influence over the right side of the body and the right side of the brain over the left side of the body. The left and right hemispheres of the brain are essentially a duplicate picture of each other, but they serve very distinct functions. For instance, in most individuals, the left hemisphere houses the areas of the brain responsible for speaking, while the right hemisphere is in charge of spatial awareness.

From wikipedia

Each region of the brain is further subdivided into quadrants of two by the central sulcus and the lateral sulcus. These divisions are known as the fronto-parietal-temporal-occipital (FPO-TO) system. The motor cortex and the sensory cortex are physically separated by the central sulcus, also known as the cleft of Rolando. It's right in front of the Rolando crack, too (which is posterior to the fissure). The higher-up in the hemisphere, the motor and sensory regions regulate the lower body. Regions of the muscular and sensory systems located lower in the hemisphere are responsible for movement and sensation in the upper body. Other functional components of the brain regions have been identified. The occipital lobe houses the visual cortex, and the temporal lobe houses the aural brain. However, a considerable portion of the monkey brain serves no obvious motor or sensory purpose. The association cortex has been hypothesized to play a role in higher-level cognitive processes.

And ultimately, this is the conclusion of the outline. I will continue with the function of the other sections of the brain that are not mentioned in this article, so stay tuned for that! see you again in the coming blog post!


Brain | Definition, Parts, Functions, & Facts. n.d. Encyclopedia Britannica.
Brain Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy: Cerebrum, Gross Anatomy: Cortex. 2015, August 24. Brain Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy: Cerebrum, Gross Anatomy: Cortex.,medulla%2C%20pons%2C%20and%20midbrain.
A Neurosurgeon’s Overview the Brain’s Anatomy. n.d. A Neurosurgeon’s Overview the Brain’s Anatomy.
Brain (Human Anatomy): Picture, Function, Parts, Conditions, and More. 2021, June 23. WebMD.
Neuroanatomy. n.d. Brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system anatomy | Kenhub.
Body, V. n.d. The Human Brain. The Human Brain.

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