Chemistry of carbohydrate- Part one

in StemSocial7 months ago (edited)



Potatoes are comprised of what exactly? In addition to water, which accounts for the majority of the potato's weight, there is also a little amount of fat, a small amount of protein, in addition to a significant quantity of carbohydrates (about 37 grams in a medium potato).
Sugars make up a portion of the carbohydrate that was mentioned earlier in the sentence. They supply the potato and the person who eats the potato, with an easily accessible source of fuel. A somewhat greater portion of the carbohydrate content of the potato is found in the form of fiber. This fiber contains cellulose polymers, which are responsible for giving the cell walls of the potato their structure. The vast majority of carbohydrates, on the other hand, are in the form of starch. Starch is made up of long chains of glucose molecules that are linked together. These chains store energy in a way. When you consume foods like French fries, potato chips, or a baked potato with all the toppings, the enzymes in your digestive system start to work on the lengthy glucose chains, breaking them down into smaller sugars that your cells can utilize.

Carbohydrates are a family of substances that may be found in nature and the derivatives that can be made from them. At the start of the 19th century, it was found that most things, like wood, starch, and linen, are made up of molecules with carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) atoms, and that these molecules have the general formula C6H12O6. Also, it was found that the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in other organic molecules with similar formulas was the same. The general formula for carbohydrates is Cx(H2O)y, which means "watered carbon" and can be used to describe a wide range of carbs. This formula is used rather frequently.

There is a wide range of possible lengths for the chains of carbohydrates, and the physiologically significant carbohydrates may be broken down into one of three categories: monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates serve crucial functions in human and animal biology, both energetically and structurally, and in this article, we'll go further into the specifics of each type of carbohydrate.

Carbohydrates are among the most widespread organic molecules found in nature. Moreover, carbohydrates are a fundamental component of all creatures that are alive. During the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water are changed into carbohydrates by green plants. Carbon dioxide and water were their starting materials. Carbohydrates are an important part of how organisms are built. They give organisms energy and help them stay together. In addition, carbohydrates are a component of the structure of nucleic acids, which are molecules that store genetic information.

Carbohydrates are categorized and named according to their chemical structures.

From wikipedia

In this article, carbohydrates are divided into four main groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. This is one of the most common ways that carbohydrates have been put into groups. The majority of monosaccharides, which are also called simple sugars, can be found in honey, grapes, and other fruits. Even though they can have anywhere from three to nine carbon atoms, the vast majority of them are connected in the shape of a chain-like molecule and comprise five or six carbon atoms each. Sugars glucose (also known as dextrose, grape sugar, and corn sugar), fructose (fruit sugar), and galactose have the same molecular formula, which is (C6H12O6), but because their atoms have different structural arrangements, the sugars have different properties; therefore, the sugars are isomers. Glucose (also known as dextrose, grape sugar, and corn sugar) is one of the most important simple sugars.

Even tiny changes in the way living things are put together, which these organisms can sense, can change how important isomeric substances are to living things. For instance, it is well known that the arrangement of the hydroxyl groups (OH) that make up a portion of the molecular structure determines the level of sweetness possessed by various sugars. These groups are found in the molecule. Still, no one has yet found a direct link between taste and any particular way of putting things together. This means that it is not yet possible to predict how sugar will taste based on how it is put together. Indirectly supplying most living things with a significant portion of the energy that is required for them to carry out the actions that are necessary for them to survive, the energy that is contained within the chemical bonds that make up glucose. Galactose is sometimes found on its own as a simple sugar, but it is usually joined with other simple sugars to make molecules that are bigger.

A disaccharide, also known as a double sugar, is formed when two molecules of a simple sugar are connected to create a chain. Table sugar, also called sucrose, has one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose. It is a disaccharide. Sugar cane and sugar beets are the most common natural sources of sucrose. Milk sugar, lactose, and maltose are also disaccharides. For living things to be able to use the energy in disaccharides, the molecules that hold the disaccharides must first be broken down into their monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides, which can have anywhere from three to six monosaccharide units, aren't very common in nature, but some have been found in plants.

Polysaccharides, whose name translates to "many sugars," make up the vast majority of the structural carbohydrates and the energy-reserve carbohydrates that may be found in nature. Polysaccharides are large molecules that can be made up of up to 10,000 linked monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be very different in size, how complicated their structure is, and how much sugar they have. At this point, several hundred distinct types of polysaccharides have been identified. Cellulose is the most common type of polysaccharide. It is a complex polysaccharide made up of many glucose units linked together in a chain-like structure. Cellulose is the primary structural component of plants.

Both glycogen and starch, which are present in mammals and plants, are forms of complex glucose polysaccharides. The name "starch" comes from the Old English word "stercan," which meant "to stiffen." Starch is most commonly found in the seeds, roots, and stems of plants, where it is stored as a source of readily available energy for the plant. Starch from plants can be refined into products like bread or eaten in its natural state, as is the case with potatoes, for instance. The livers and muscles of higher animals are what make glycogen, which is then stored as an energy source. Glycogen is made up of long chains of glucose molecules and branches out in different directions.

From wikipedia
The general ending for the monosaccharides is -ose; hence, the name pentose (pent = five) is used for monosaccharides that include five carbon atoms, while the term hexose (hex = six) is used for those that have six carbon atoms. Moreover, the monosaccharides are commonly known as aldopentoses, ketopentoses, aldohexoses, or ketohexoses because they include a chemically reactive group that is either an aldehyde group or a keto group. An aldehyde group can be found in position 1 of an aldopentose, and a keto group to be found in a further position (for example, position 2) inside of a ketohexose. Glucose is classified as an aldohexose, which means that it has a total of six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group as its reactive chemical component.

Biological significance

Carbs are important to all living things in so many ways that it's hard to say enough about them. Carbohydrates are often easy to get and provide quick energy, but lipids provide energy that lasts longer and is usually eaten more slowly. Most animals and plants can get the energy they need from both carbohydrate and fat stores. Glucose is the most common type of free sugar that can be found in the blood of higher animals. It is an important part of how cells work. The maintenance of healthy glucose metabolism and its appropriate management are of utmost significance to the continuation of life.

The part it plays in the ecosystem

The fundamental process that supports the biosphere, the region of the planet where life is possible, is the conversion of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into carbohydrates by green plants using the sun's light energy. This transformation is what has made it possible for life to evolve into its current state. This process, which is known as photosynthesis, results in both the release of oxygen gas into the atmosphere and the translation of light energy into the chemical energy of carbohydrates. Both of these outcomes may be attributed to the process. Animals use the energy that plants stored during the process of producing carbohydrates to put forth mechanical effort and carry out biosynthesis-related activities.

During the process of photosynthesis, a substance known as 3-phosphoglyceric acid is produced. This substance contains phosphorous and is an immediate product.

This chemical is subsequently turned into cell wall components such as cellulose, different amounts of sucrose, and starch depending on the kind of plant; and a vast variety of polysaccharides in addition to cellulose and starch that operate as crucial structural components.

Participation in the maintenance of human nutrition


from PxHere

One calorie, in the sense that it is used in nutrition, is the amount of heat that is required to raise the temperature of 1,000 grams of water from 15 to 16 degrees Celsius (59 to 61 degrees Fahrenheit); in other contexts, this amount of heat is referred to as the kilocalorie. The total amount of calories, or energy, a person needs depends on their age, job, and other things, but it's usually between 2,000 and 4,000 calories per day. The caloric output of carbohydrates that are digestible by humans is only four calories per gram, in contrast to the nine calories per gram that fat and the four calories per gram that protein produce. In parts of the world with poor nutrition, carbohydrates may provide a large portion (about one to two pounds) of a person's daily energy needs. Most of the rest of the energy comes from fat, which comes from a variety of sources. This could be the case for someone whose daily energy needs are between one and two pounds.

Although carbohydrates may account for as much as 80 percent of the total calorie intake from a human diet, the ratio of starch to total carbohydrates in any given diet can vary quite a bit depending on the cultural norms that are in place at the time. In some regions, such as East Asia and parts of Africa, where rice and tubers like manioc are the primary sources of nutrition, starch may account for as much as 80 percent of the total carbohydrate intake. Carbohydrates make up between 33 and 50 percent of the average calorie intake that people get from a Western diet. About one-fifth, or 17 to 25 percent, is made up of starch; another third is made up of table sugar (sucrose) and milk sugar (lactose); and smaller percentages are made up of monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose, which are typically found in fruits, honey, syrups, and certain vegetables such as artichokes, onions, and sugar beets. The small amount left over is mostly bulk, which is another word for carbohydrates that can't be broken down. This type of carbohydrate is mostly found in the cellulosic covering of seeds and in the stalks and leaves of vegetables.

Function within the skeletal systems of both plants and animals

Most of the carbohydrates that can be found in nature are part of the structure of the cell walls of plants. This is different from the main polysaccharides that living things use as reserves, which are starches and glycogen. The carbohydrates that make up plant cell walls often consist of multiple different layers, one of which has a higher concentration of cellulose than the others. As compared to those of the amylose component of starch, the structural and chemical characteristics of cellulose are significantly different from those of amylose.

Most plant species have a cell wall that is about 0.5 micrometers thick and is made up of lignin, cellulose, and pentose-containing polysaccharides, which are also called pentosans. Lignin is an inert substance that is chemically unreactive and resembles plastic. The amounts of cellulose and pentosan can vary, but most plants have between 40 and 60% cellulose. Cotton fiber has a much higher concentration of cellulose than most other plant fibers.

Polysaccharides also play an important role in the structure of animals because they are important building blocks. Insects and other arthropods have chitin, a substance that is analogous to cellulose and can be found in the same places. In the structural tissues of higher animals, the predominant type of polysaccharide found is an intricately-structured one.

Please permit me to stop here for now. I am trying to avoid bulking the article , so i will continue futher aspects and other classes of carbohydrates in my next article.


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  • Migala, Jessica, and Kelly Kennedy RDN. “What Are Carbohydrates? Benefits, Functions, Best Sources, Diets, More.”, 1 Mar. 2019,

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I am a complete beginner who resides in Africa's Western Hemisphere. My name is James, but you may reach out to me through the Facebook page [Christ Messenger] ( In the year 2018, I completed my high school diploma. Physics, chemistry, and biology are the three topics that I find most enjoyable. My current studies are taking place at the university level, intending to become a recognized professional in one of the topics I am interested in. My professional experience as a computer hardware technician is in the middle of the spectrum. When I got my SSCE qualification in 2018, I became more interested in learning more about computers and how to take care of them. I am fascinated by all things technological, and I take pleasure in contributing to the fascinating technological advancements that are taking place throughout the world today. In my spare time, I'd like to learn more about programming and help others with any technical problems they may be having. 💞 ***🌹❤️ Thank you so much to everyone who has supported me thus far. ****💞 At the moment, I don't have the right words to say how much I appreciate all of your help. You never cease to astonish me with your generosity. For me, this has turned into a haven of enjoyment. Thanks to colleagues like you, this has all been possible. You've been a great support for me. Everything you have done for me and my family has been greatly appreciated, and I will always be grateful to you. 💕.

The rate with which we consume carbohydrate in this part of the world is significantly alarming, we need to really learn so much about what we consume, thanks for this post.

You are right. Though it won't be easy, people need to be educated on this matter.

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