Understanding the adverse effect of Varicella-zoster virus(chicken pox) and its pathophysiology

in StemSocial11 days ago

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Understanding the pattern at which some diseases happen and ways of preventing them will be a big way of tackling some devastating sickness.

Well, there are some diseases which I never knew are still into existence until I came across some persons suffering from them.

Chicken pox is this particular infection that seems to be seasonal though usually seen in some persons who happens to come in contact with the Varicella-zoster virus. This virus is usually seen in our environment where it can survive for few hours.

It affects both children and adults by causing an infection known as chicken pox. This disease seems to be mild in children but severe in adults.

People who suffers from this disease may not likely be reinfected reason being that this virus lies dormant in the neurons of every affected individuals,including the cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, and autonomic ganglia.

This infection results to a skin rash on our face,back and shoulders that forms small itchy blisters which might be painful.

It usually comes with fever, headache and tiredness which might be mistaken to be other disease due to its similar signs and symptoms. This symptoms usually last up to 5 to 7 days.
Other complications that comes along with this infection includes pneumonia, inflammation of the brain and bacteria skin infection.

This disease is easily transmissible from one person to the other reason being that is an airborne disease that can be gotten through sneezing and coughing. It also has an incubation period of 10- 21 days before the infection starts to manifest.

pathophysiology

Exposure to varicella-zoster virus triggers a lot of immunity these includes immunoglobin G, immunoglobin M, and immunoglobin A.

This immunoglobins helps to fight the virus and prevents it from causing much harm to the body.

After the primary infestation of the virus,the virus remains dormant for a while in the ganglion cells where it might reactivate in the next 50 years of age to form shingles(herpes zoster virus).

Shingles is another form of varicella-zoster virus which reoccurs after 50 years of primary infestation of varicella.

It is advisable that every human above the age of 50 years and have had varicella zoster virus before, should endeavor to take herpes zoster vaccine in other to prevent the So called shingles from occuring.

Diagnosis

Chickenpox can be diagnosed by observation of the signs and symptoms that comes with it. Examination of the fluid inside the rash can also serve as part of confirmation to the disease.

Vesicular fluid is being observed by tzanck smear, also the fluid can also be cultured where an attempt is being made to know if there will be growth.

Other test includes

Prenatal diagnosis of fetal varicella infection can be performed using ultrasound, though a delay of 5 weeks following primary maternal infection is advised. A PCR (DNA) test of the mother's amniotic fluid can also be performed, though the risk of spontaneous abortion due to the amniocentesis procedure is higher than the risk of the baby's developing fetal varicella syndrome

How to prevent this virus

Maintaining a personal hygiene by isolating those with this disease from associating with non Carrier

This is because, people with this disease can easily spread this virus as it is airborne and can easily be transmissible.

Another way we can prevent this viral disease is by the help of vaccination.
Vaccination helps to prevent someone from coming down with this disease by denying it an access to the internal body.

Treatment

Treatment mainly consists of easing the symptoms. As a protective measure, people are usually required to stay at home while they are infectious to avoid spreading the disease to others. Cutting the fingernails short or wearing gloves may prevent scratching and minimize the risk of secondary infections

Paracetamol intake will also help in the management of chicken pox as it helps to reduce the severity of the pains.

Conclusion

Chicken pox is a disease that can actually affects both a child and adult. This sickness may seems to be severe in adults but can be managed through the help of pain relief.

Maintaining a good hygiene will go a long way in helping us prevent the devastating effect of this so called virus and enable us not to get them.

References
the pathophysiology of chicken pox
signs and symptoms of chicken pox
treatment of chicken pox
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