In my last post, we discussed the anatomy of the skull both for adults and the fontanelles in the fetal skull. Today, let's go into other bony structures in the body, so let's begin with the vertebral Column and then to other bony parts of the body.
Starting with the Cervical vertebrae, let's discuss the atlas which is C1. At the superior of the atlas, there is a depression which is known as the Superior articular processes which articulates with the occipital bone (occipital condyles) forming the synovial condyloid joint. The atlas has protruded sides at its anterior and posterior side known as Tubercle. At the side of the Atlas are the tranverse processes, which have holes known as the Transverse foramen where the spinal cord runs through, and the vertebral foramena where the vertebral arteries run through. There is an articulating process inferiorly and superiorly which facets with axis (C2), allowing for the joining of the synovial pivot joint.ncbi, libretexts.
The Axis or C2 is known for its odontoid process. It has the superior articular process at its side, which articulates with the inferior articulating process of the Atlas (C1). It also pocesses a vertebral foramen which allows the spinal cord to run through which is protected by the spinous process. The axis also pocesses the body and transverse process which is better seen from the inferior of the axis. Each transverse process poccesses the transverse foramina where the vertebral arteries run through. Inferior of the axis is where the inferior articular process which articulates with the superior articulating process of the cervical vertebra (C3).physiopedia,kenhub.
The Cervical vertebrae C3 through C6 are almost the same. They pocesses the Bifid Spinous process which are usually short. The cervical vertibral has the same characteristic with other C1 and C2, auch as the body, the Lamina, pedicles, and the inferior articulaing process. C7 has the vertebral prominence. C7 is the last cervical vertebrae and it pocesses superior articular processes with faucets, and it also poccesses the transverse foramen. It is important to know that the transverse foramen is found only in the cervical vertebrae.healthcentral, physiopedia, tmisportsmed.
The thoracic vertebrae are 12 in number, each thoracic vertebrae poccesses thick body and they do not possess transverse foramen but they possess transverse processes and a vertebral foramen where the spinal cord passes through. It poccesses the superior and inferior articular process with faucets. These vertebrae articulates with the ribs through Costal facets.ncbi, teachmeanatomy
The rib possesses two ends with onee connecting to the sternum and the other connecting to the thoracic vertebrae. The rib is made up of the rib tubercle, the superior costal groove, and the neck which is made up of the inferior and superior facet. The sternum which is made up of the manubrium, the jugular notch,the clavical notch, the sternal angle, the body, xiphisternal joint, and the xiphoid process.teachmeanatomy, sciencedirect.
The lumbar vertebraes are 5 in number and it is made up of a thick body, transverse processes, the superior and inferior articular process and facet, the spinous process, the vertebral carnal, lamina, pedicle, and the vertebral canal. Between two vertebral column is the intervertebral foramen.kenhub, physiopedia.
Sacral vertebrae is made up of 5 bones which then fuses to become 1 bone, with transverse ridges between each fixed bones. At the last Sacrum is the Apex ridge. The superior part of the sacrum is knonw as the sacral promontory. The Sacral vertebral is made up of the anterior sacral foramina, and the wing-like region of the sacrum is known as the Ala of the Sacrum. Behind the ala of the sacrum is the auricular surface of the sacrum and it articulate with the auricular surface of the ilium to form the sacroiliac joint.ncbi, verywellhealth.
Image 1 || Wikimedia Commons || Vertèbre cervicale C1
Image 2 || Flickr || Cervical Vertebra
Image 3 || Wikimedia Commons || Cervical Spine Computer Generated Labeled
Image 4 || Wikimedia Commons || Thoracic vertebrae
Image 5 || Flickr || Comparative anatomy