ORGANELLES- GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY CONTINUATION

in StemSocial2 months ago (edited)

image.png
Designed by me using Inkcape illustrator

This is my third post on the cell. This is the first one and this is the second one. Do well to read them, it's the script of my medical animation series.

Today I want to describe the organelles of the cell and add them to the characters in my animation. The first step in my creative process of animating is making the graphic design.

Before we discuss organelles, let's first dive right into the cytoplasm.

CYTOPLASM

image.png
Designed by me using Inkcape illustrator

The cytoplasm is the jelly that holds the cell together from within. It comprises mainly of water (about 80%) and it contains different particles. In this fluid matrix also are the organelles.

ORGANELLES

Organelles, from the name, suggest some sort of organ structure or function within the cell. This is exactly what they are except you can not call them organs because they are too small. So they are small organs. Every one of them has a specific structure and function.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough ER.png
Designed by me using Inkcape illustrator

This organelle breaks down old organelles and is responsible for making protein. A cell is only as important as the protein it produces.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Smooth ER.png
Designed by me using Inkcape illustrator

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum makes lipids and steroids it also stores and processes calcium.

Lysosomes
There are the grinding houses of the cell where degradation takes place mostly of foreign bodies.

Mitochondria

Mitochondria.png
Designed by me using Inkcape illustrator

The mitochondria are typically described as the powerhouse of the cell where the energy currency (ATP) of the cell is produced.

Golgi apparatus
This is the packaging warehouse of the cell where proteins and lipids are put together before they leave the cell.

Ribosome

Ribosome.png
Designed by me using Inkcape illustrator

The ribosome is like a machine where proteins are being made with recipes called RNA.

The Nucleus
The Nucleus is the center of all the cell's activities. It houses the genetic material of the cell and is directly involved with the replication of the cell. The genetic material (RNA) of the nucleus is what makes the ribosome create proteins. The nucleus also creates ribosomes. The nucleus is the most obvious part of the cell and it is somewhat of the brain of the cell. It has a nucleolus, nucleoplasm, and chromatin.

The Nuclear Membrane is the covering that envelopes the nucleus and gives it its structure. It comprises the same structure of the endoplasmic reticulum.

Nucleoplasm is a similar fluid to the cytoplasm found in the nucleus

Peroxisome
A Peroxisome is the detox center of the cell. In addition to breaking down, dangerous oxides break down fat and produce myeline and bile salts.

Cytoskeleton
As the name suggests it is the skeleton of the cell. It maintains the structure of the cell alongside the membrane of the cell.

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA.png
Designed by me using Inkcape illustrator

For cells to reproduce themselves genetic information has to be passed from the mother cell to its offspring. DNA is this genetic material. The material itself is known as a nucleic acid comprising of sub-molecules that are important for cellular characterization.

The structure of the DNA is a double helix and is made up of deoxyribose, phosphoric acid, and four different bases. Each part of the double helix is a polynucleotide. The deoxyribose and phosphoric acid are the longer lengths of the double helix and the bases make up the shorter arm of the molecule that keeps the two helixes together.

The bases are of two types, The purines, and the pyrimidines.

The purines are Adenine and Guanine while the Pyrimidines are the Thymine and the Cytosine. The Adenine of one strand binds to the Thymine of the other strand and the Guanin of one strand binds to the Cytosine of the other strand.

One way to remember the Purines is that Guanine has a "U' and the word Purine has a "U' and remembering that Ade is pure.

Then the word "at" will remind you of the binding preferences.

GENE

A gene is a segment of the DNA that codes for a particular protein to be created by the ribosome. Remember when I said that a cell is defined by the protein it synthesizes, well this is what I meant. If the genetic makeup allows a protein to be synthesized, it basically defines the cell, the tissue, the organ, and the system. The keratin created by skin cells helps the cells of the skin to possess strength when compared to cells of the internal organs but it is nowhere compared to the collagen of the bone cells that provide structural rigidity of the body.

Genetic Disorders
When the appropriate genes are not found in the cell they code for abnormal proteins which can present as a genetic disorder.

They arise as a result of genetic variation (a different form of a gene) and Genetic mutation (an alteration in a normal gene).

RIBONUCLEIC ACID

RNA.png
Designed by me using Inkcape illustrator

Ribonucleic acid is similar to Deoxyribonucleic acid in terms of constituents but instead of a double-stranded helix, it is single-stranded. Also, it has a deoxyribose sugar, ribonucleic acid has a ribose sugar backbone. Also, it has a different type of pyrimidine called Uracil.

Types
There are 3 types of RNA, messenger (mRNA), transfer (tRNA), and ribosomal (rRNA).

The messenger RNA carries codes from the DNA to the cytoplasm. This message from the DNA is encoded by the transfer RNA. The code on the transfer RNA is encoded in the ribosome by the rRNA.

RECAPP

In this chapter, we have discussed the CYtoplasm and the organs within the cytoplasm including their function. We also discussed the nucleus and the Genetic material and its importance in creating proteins. Genetic disorders were also said to take place when there is an abnormal gene.

REFERENCES

Sort:  

Did you design these images using inkcape or you picked them from the app?

I did them with inkscape

Then, just put 'designed by me using inkscape'

Thank you.


Posted via proofofbrain.io

You are welcome

Oh ok

Thanks for your contribution to the STEMsocial community. Feel free to join us on discord to get to know the rest of us!

Please consider supporting our funding proposal, approving our witness (@stem.witness) or delegating to the @stemsocial account (for some ROI).

Please consider using the STEMsocial app app and including @stemsocial as a beneficiary to get a stronger support.