Estrogen, the Reproductive System Hormone

in StemSocial2 months ago

You know, it is so funny how some ladies believe that the hormone estrogen isn't present in young children. The mindset that estrogen is the hormone responsible for the enhancement and growth of females and their reproductive features, but not present in them as children is wrong. Children have Estradiol hormone, which is a member of the estrogen hormone in their body, but it isn't available in large quantities, making its effect not visible. [1]. Estrogen is one of the two sex hormones in females, with the other being progesterone. Estrogen is a combination of three hormones (Estriol, Estrone, and Estradiol). [2]. In this post, I will be explaining the Hormone Estrogen.

https://www.flickr.com/photos/arnehendriks/7156853897

Estrone, is more available in women after menopause. It is the weakest form of estrogen which is basically produced in the Adrenal gland, in the kidney cortex. It can serve as a store house for Estradiol, thereby converting when needed.[3].

Estriol Estrogen, is usually heightened during pregnancy, helping the Uterus to grow, and helping the body to prepare for labor and delivery. It is produced by the placenta, and research shows that it has potential immunomodulatory benefit for pregnant women. [4]

Estradiol is basically the most active and available estrogen hormone. It maintains and is responsible for growth in the sexual reproductive parts of the body.[5].

The Estrogen is produced majorly in the ovaries, but it is also produced in other parts of the body. In the adrenal gland of the kidneys, the placenta when women are pregnant, also produces estrogen. In the ovary, the anterior pituitary hormone (Follicle stimulating Hormone) allows follicles to develop in the ovaries, Ovarian Theca cell and Granulosa cells starts to produce estrogen into the body.[7]. A Madison research team reported in 2013, that the hypothalamus of the brain, produces Estrogen, [Estradiol (E2)] in the neurons and astrocytes of the brain. [6][10].

When the ovary releases the Estrogen, it is immediately released into the bloodstream, allowing them to circulate to the entire body. Estrogen, binds either to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or Albumi. Once estrogen gets to its target, it crosses the cell membrane, and it is picked up by a carrier membrane to the Nucleus. Estrogen binds near certain genes to change their expressions, thereby changing the behavior of the target cell.[7]

For clarity, males, and females depend on Estrogen, it isn’t the female alone that needs it. While Estrogen doesn’t have much effect in children, since it is released in minute quantity, in puberty, the amount increases, and it has a higher concentration and presence in the body of the female. In the woman, Estrogen will cause a lot of changes in the body. The changes in females would include the increase in their sex organs such as the Uterine Tube, Uterus, the Ovaries, the Virginal canal, the Labia majora and minora, the epithelial tissues become thicker, and also, there will be increase in fat around the female sex organs, there will be changes in the Endometrium (inside lining of the uterus), the parenchymal and stromal changes of the breast tissue (Estrogen alone cannot get the breast to look matured, it needs the progesterone to get it done). When Estrogen inhibits the cell Osteoclasts, it helps to improve the bone.[7].

Estrogen found in the male doesn't start as estrogen, it is a conversion of testosterone through the enzyme Aromatase. It is converted in the right Testis/Testicle of the man, and in the Liver. The roles of estrogen in man are very different from that of the woman, and these include, spermatogenesis (regeneration of sperm cells), sex drives (libido), and erectile function.[8].

According to an article, titled The protective role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in cardiovascular disease and the controversial use of estrogen therapy, premenopausal females are less likely to have cardiovascular diseases, compared to the male gender of the same age. The article showed that it could be attributed to the high level of Estrogen (E2) [estradiol] present in the females compared to the males. The article further explained that the rate of incidence and severity of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women increases. The research showed that E2 and its receptors play a protective role in the cardiovascular system.[9].

Low Estrogen can become something very disturbing, if not in aging persons. Estrogen is required for the development of the sexual attributes in young people, but what could happen when the production of Estrogen is low?

As a lady, the overies are responsible for the creation of estrogen, which is usually seen in sexually active ladies, but when the production of estrogen is low, the woman menstrual cycle stops. Even as a young lady, you can start exhibiting postmenopausal attributes, including the depositing of fat cells in the body, especially in the belly. Other effects would include, lack/loss of sexual drive, osteoporosis (remember that estrogen inhibits Osteoclasts which are cells that degrade the bone), delay in puberty.[11].

Low Estrogen could be as a result of genetic disorders such as Turner syndrome, Autoimmune diseases such as Lupus and Crohn's disease, Eating disorders could also lead to low estrogen, ovarian cancer and over exposure to radioactivity during treatment, and Hypothalamic amenorrhea.

In treating low Estrogen, Hormone replacement therapy is can be considered, Estrogen Therapy (using only estrogen supplements), and Proper diet (in cases of eating disorder).

Final Words

The importance of Estrogen cannot be overemphasized. It is available in both males and females, but more in females than in males. If you notice any changes in your body as a lady, which could include changes in menstrual cycle, it is advisable to visit A gynecologist. Health comes first.


Reference
[1] Kids Health - Blood Test: Estradiol

[2] Medical News Today.- Everything you need to know about estrogen

[3] Cleveland Clinic - Estrone

[4] The Journal of The North American Menopause Society - Estriol: emerging clinical benefits

[5] Your hormones - Oestradiol

[6] University of Wisconsin–Madison - Estrogen: Not just produced by the ovaries

[7] National Library of Medicine - Estrogen

[8] Healthline - Risk Factors of Having High or Low Estrogen Levels in Males

[9] BMC - The protective role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in cardiovascular disease and the controversial use of estrogen therapy

[10] Science Direct - Brain-derived estrogen and neural function

[11] Cleveland Clinic - Low Estrogen


Images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/arnehendriks/7156853897

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Estrogen hormone as I have always called it, is the beauty hormone in humans (women to be precise). Once dey begin to reduce in concentration, reproductive factors and beauty gradually fades.

It sure plays a significant role in humans.

This is true, it is the hormone that actually gives women our beauty and prime. When menopause reaches, and we stop producing lots of it, we start to see a different body shape to what we knew before.

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Nice piece.
The importance of estrogen really cannot be overemphasized. I mean, not only does it affect the reproductive system but other systems like the musculoskeletal system.