mangrove forest in indonesia - image source
The presence of mangrove forests in coastal areas is very important and broad, especially to prevent coastal abrasion. Mangrove trees can be grown in estuaries and in the sea coast. Indonesia itself is a country with the largest mangrove forest area in the world after Brazil. The area of mangrove forests in Indonesia reaches 25% of the total area of mangrove forests in the world.
So what are the characteristics of mangrove trees? And are there any benefits of mangroves besides protecting coastal areas? Do mangroves play a role in preventing global warming?
- Getting to know Mangroves
As I have described above, Mangroves are plants that can grow wild in brackish water areas such as the coast and river estuaries. More precisely, mangroves grow where organic accumulation and siltation occurs. In the mangrove forest area, few other growth could survive another. However, the trunks and roots of mangrove trees can support a wide variety of animals.
Mangrove forest is a natural shield, but not all mangroves are the same, mangroves that grow at the forefront and mangroves that grow in the middle and rear have different types. This is called the mangrove classification according to the zone.
The outermost mangroves are called Rhizophora spp. This mangrove will grow supporting roots that branch into the main shield against the waves. Furthermore, mangroves grow in the most muddy areas or in the middle of the mangrove forest area are Mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata.
Following is the zoning of mangrove forests.
|In the deepest part of Bakau||muncronata and types of bruguiera spp.|
|River banks with fresh water||Nipah or Nypa Fruticans, Bintaro Cerbera spp|
|Dry areas||Nirih (Xylacarpus spp,), Lumnitzera racemose, and Heritiera littoralis|
Mangrove tree scientific classification.
- The presence of mangroves is to prevent global warming
Why mangroves can be one indicator in reducing the impact of global warming. Global warming is often associated with rising sea levels, and causes weather anomalies. This is due to various factors, one of which is illegal logging which then has an impact on increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the air that is not absorbed by plants.
This incident affects the climate of the earth, such as humidity and affects the direction of the angina, causing anomalies to appear. Therefore, the presence of mangroves plays an important role in reducing the impact of global warming. Coastal ecosystems such as mangroves can act as blue carbon which can reduce carbon dioxide emissions on earth. Scientists argue, coastal ecosystems are like mangrove forests can store and absorb mangroves 100 times more than forests on land.
carbon sequestration in mangrove vs. inland forest - image source
Launching from several sources, carbon absorption and storage by mangrove forests in Indonesia as much as 38.80 tons per 1 hectare in one year. So if the total area of mangrove forests in Indonesia is calculated, then the potential for carbon storage by mangroves reaches 122.22 million tonnes / 1 hectare / year.
Mangroves themselves are known as a natural cooling system for the earth, which can absorb carbon in the roots and soil. Moreover, mangrove plants contain organic varieties that do not rot, so that the carbon they absorb will be stored, in other words, mangroves have a function as an absorber, rather than a source of carbon dioxide.
mangrove forests can absorb and store more carbon than ordinary forests. because there is organic material that cannot decompose in the mangrove forest, which functions to store more carbon dioxide, rather than releasing it into the atmosphere. On the other hand, illegal logging is getting worse, it can also be a thing that destroys mangrove forests due to global warming. hence, it is important to maintain the forest ecosystem on land, and also to maintain the mangrove forest ecosystem.
thank you, @azissuloh