Hi guys, I'm sure we are quite familiar with the term of cloning. especially if you have ever watched films related to cloning, such as The 6th day or replicas I am sure these films provide enough informations to us about what cloning looks like, especially human cloning.
as we know, cloning is one of the advances in biology that allows creating a new cell or organism asexually and it is a genetic copy of the previous organism. so as we see in the movies that there are two humans that are similar or identic, that's what cloning looks like. you or me may find different individual but have similarities with our own bodies ... and don't think that she/he is our twins brother or sister who come from the same parents with us. she/he is not...
Cloning of living things for the first time was famous when British scientists in 1996 created a clone sheep named dolly or 6LL3 (code name)
Dolly was cloned using a technique known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This technique uses a sheep egg cell that having nucleus removed, then a new cell nucleus containing DNA information from another sheep is implanted in the egg cell whose cell nucleus has been removed earlier.
so guys, basically this dolly sheep or 6LL3 is a clone of a white Finn dorset type sheep. (we can see in the picture above). which the nucleus of the sheep is injected into the eggs of a Scottish Blackface lamb. then the embrio was put in surrogate mother. after that, 6LL3 sheep or Dolly sheep came true... We can see that the dolly sheep has a pure white color, different from the sheep where he was born, which has a black face. so the dolly is a clone of the Finn Dorset sheep...
after we know some descriptions of how the cloning process of living things is, where the creation of new organisms no need the sexual process as we know before. then A big question comes to our mind....
Could this cloning process happen to humans ???
Honestly, till now I've not found any accurate information or data that it has been proven that the human cloning process is successful. indeed there were some claims that cloning humans was succesful, but all these claims are not proven.
such as by the Raelians sect who claims have succeeded in creating their first clone human named eve, but the claim was ultimately not proven. Furthermore, another horrendous claim was from a South Korean scientist, Hwang Woo-suk, a scientist who was also a Korean stem cell hero, said that he had succeeded in creating a human embryo clone but again he could not prove this claim. and he had to spend 2 years in prison....
So what makes cloning humans difficult? Well scientists basically before doing cloning in humans they first tested it on primates, yes it's a rhesus monkey which is a primate that has the high level of similarity to humans, so scientists assume if cloning of these primates is successful, so human cloning is possible as well.
however, in the process, cloning of primates is not the same as cloning of cows, sheep or dogs. there is one big problem, namely the molecular problem. monkey egg cells lose a set of key proteins during the cloning process and this causes genetic damage to the cloning embryo so it's deformed. and the scientist expected that the same thing would happen to human cloning as well. or even more complex...
so what if someday primate cloning works ?
well it's not a dream anymore, because in 2018, China had successfully cloned primates..yes..they've made it..china created 2 cloning rhesus monkeys named Zhong-zhong and Hua-hua...
Zhong-zhong and Hua-hua
China managed to get through the process of eliminating the nucleus without losing a set of key proteins as has been the problem the scientists in another countries for the past 2 decades. and prove that primate cloning is possible.
human cloning ?
although the Chinese succeeded in cloning primates, it seems that human cloning is still hard to be real. It's true that the method used by Chinese scientists is the same as the method of creating a dolly sheep 20 years ago. but there is a fundamental problem that is difficult to solve until now before stepping into human cloning.
The problem is that cloning in primates cannot use adult cells as is done in dolly sheep, yes ... Chinese scientists use young cells derived from aborted monkey fetuses, due to the older cells are more difficult to clone and caused the high level of miscarriage when the embryo is inserted into the mother's uterus.
from this explanation we can imagine how complicated the cloning process is, and to make duplicat cloning such as dolly sheep on human is quite imposible. So we can conclude that to make 2 humans who have identical similarities without going through the sexual process (twins) like we saw in some films is very difficult to happen !!!!
but could we create cloning humans from fetal cells ???
- H.D. Griffin DOLLY: THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE WORLD’S MOST FAMOUS SHEEP, Roslin Institute (Edinburgh), Roslin, UK