Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in obesity - Part 2

in StemSocial2 months ago

A pleasure to greet you again, this Sunday, day of rest in my case, I hope you are all having a good day with your family and that next week will be productive for everyone.

Yesterday I started to share what I consider to be a very important and transcendental topic, since talking about metabolism is extremely necessary, but to raise it in a simple way to understand so that the person who attends a consultation can take advantage of this information and use it to their advantage.

In my previous publication I started talking about carbohydrate metabolism and made reference to many other things that are directly related to the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, and why this can be, in general terms, the cause of obesity if there is an exaggerated increase of carbohydrates.

But, the way in which they are related is what I will emphasize in this publication, so I invite you to continue reading what I am about to tell you and I am sure you will be interested.

Pixabay/ Author: Bru-nO

In my previous post I explained how is that process by which when ingesting complex or simple carbohydrates end up, through the digestion process, turning into Glucose molecules. But I also told you that when there is a surplus of this molecule it ends up becoming fat, and it is this that accumulates in the abdominal area and other areas of the body.

I would like to emphasize that the distribution of fat in the body varies among people, and this is determined by genetic conditions to a large extent, but also by factors such as sedentary lifestyle, but in general, we can classify the distribution of fat in two ways:

  • Obesity is characterized by an excessive accumulation of fat in the abdominal area (called abdominal or "apple-type" obesity). This fat distribution is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
  • There is also another type of obesity called "pear-type" obesity, in which fat accumulates mainly in the hips and thighs. This fat distribution is associated with a lower risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes. However, it is also best avoided.

Pixabay/ Author: taniadimas

The chemical process by which the body converts carbohydrates into lipids is known as lipid synthesis. In this process, carbohydrates are metabolized into carbohydrates, especially glucose, which is used by the body's cells as a source of energy.

However, when the amount of available carbohydrates is greater than necessary, the excess glucose is converted into glycerol and fatty acids through a series of enzymatic reactions. These compounds are the precursors of lipids.

The synthesis of fats is a complex chemical process, in which lipids are obtained from other molecules.

Lipids are a diverse group of organic molecules that include triglycerides (fats), phospholipids and steroids. Lipid synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm of cells and is divided into two stages:

  • The first stage, precursor formation, takes place through a series of enzymatic reactions that combine glycerol and fatty acids to produce an intermediate compound called phosphatidylcholine.

  • In the second stage, lipid formation, takes place through the binding of phosphatidylcholine to a molecule of glycerol to produce phosphatidylglycerol (phospholipid) and excess fatty acids bind to glycerol to form triglycerides.

We must keep in mind that lipids are essential to the body, as they are important structural components of cell membranes, and are also an important source of stored energy.

Pixabay/ Author: Image for free use

The above explained is the process by which the body uses excess carbohydrates to produce fat, however, we must also consider that when we eat we are also consuming lipids or fats of different types, which are also absorbed by the digestion process.

Fat metabolism begins with the absorption of fats in the intestine. Fats are transported through the blood in the form of triglycerides, which are stored in the body's adipose tissues. When the body needs energy, the adipose tissues release triglycerides into the blood to be transported to the cells.

Once inside the cells, triglycerides are metabolized by a process called beta-oxidation, in which they are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol. The fatty acids are used to produce energy through cellular respiration, while the glycerol is used to produce glucose through a process known as glycerol phosphorylation.

Excess unused fatty acids are stored in adipose tissues for later use. The liver can also convert fatty acids into ketone bodies, which can be used as an additional energy source by the brain and other organs.

Pixabay/ Author: Engin-Akyurt

Then we have that there are triglycerides that we consume, as well as cholesterol among other types of fats, which accumulate in the adipose tissue, and additionally if we eat more carbohydrates than necessary our body will take that surplus and convert it into fats to store.

As you can see, it is a sum of what is generated in different ways. The ideal is to maintain a balance in our diet, not excess carbohydrates or fats, so that we do not gain weight and predispose us to suffer from many diseases.

This is a subject that I started with a metabolic description of these processes, however, what I am pursuing is to show that we can protect ourselves very easily. And I believe that having knowledge of these processes can help our health to be better, even though I know that knowing is not necessarily a guarantee that people will remain healthy.

As always, thank you in advance for your support, if you have something to add you can leave it in the comments and so we all benefit.


I was discussing with someone and in our discussion, we stated that sugar has done more in terms of obesity than fat from dairy. We as humans consume carbohydrates a lot, and we need lots of energy and that could be a good justification for consuming excessive carbohydrates but a lot of people do not know that carbohydrate, in the form of glucose and sucrose leads to obesity. I do not blame them for not knowing since big corporations spend money to tell people that taking Coke, or Pepsi wouldn't make them obese.

Glucose is important, but excess glucose consumption is part of what has led to so many health problems, especially metabolic problems.

But the publicity is greater for consumption than for staying away from those excesses.

I think we can only help the people closest to us, but beyond that, it is a little more difficult.

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