From synthetic to organic agriculture.

in StemSociallast year (edited)
The conventional agricultural model has several negative factors, thus the emergence of sustainable ecological agriculture based on the use of organic fertilizers that can be used rationally, in order to improve productivity and preserve the biodiversity of agroecosystems (Moreno and Díaz 2008). One of the most widely used methods in different latitudes is the use of organic fertilizers implemented in different ways with a simple, low-cost technology within the reach of local producers, and their application could improve the vegetative characteristics of crops.

Design by @amestyj with images of his property.

At present, certain imbalances in the components that make up the ecosystem can be evidenced in some agricultural agroecosystems, among these components is the soil, whose properties can be affected, which reduces the ability to sustain profitable agricultural production, in that sense crops such as corn, which is of great importance worldwide and is widely consumed and used as a primary raw material in the agroindustrial sector.

For the above mentioned, Diaz and Montenegro (2005), mention that the possible causes of low crop yields are due to the decrease in the biological potential of soils, together with the high costs of agro-inputs of synthetic origin, for which most producers do not fertilize and this results in a considerable decrease in crop yields, becoming unprofitable production units, without any determined fertilization plan to cover the nutritional and biological needs of the soil.

Design by @amestyj with image of his property.

For these reasons, various practices have been promoted to recover soil fertility by integrating organic matter to increase the diversity of soil microorganisms that undoubtedly generate a beneficial effect on the ecosystem and agricultural production, the effects can be observed in the medium or long term. Depending on the speed of decomposition of the organic matter applied, CIARA Foundation (sf) points out that in tropical areas decomposition can be accelerated due to the fact that temperatures tend to be higher.

Among the sustainable alternatives that can be implemented are liquid products obtained from the processing of biol, among others, since the use of liquid organic materials can satisfy the nutritional demand of crops, in addition to reducing production costs and dependence on mineral fertilizers. According to Ingham (2005), the application of this type of alternatives to the soil can increase yields and fruit quality because it increases the nutritional level of the plant, and also favors plant health, mainly because it contains beneficial microorganisms capable of inhibiting crop. diseases.

Design by @amestyj with images of his property.

Also among the different forms of organic fertilizers is worm humus, so called because it comes from the decomposition of the red Californian earthworm of the raw material supplied, such as bovine manure. It is one of the simplest alternatives of organic fertilization, used to improve the microbiological activity of the soil and the level of plant nutrition, providing minerals, vitamins, amino acids and organic acids.

In the same sense, researchers such as Somarriba and Guzmán (2004), indicate that worm humus is one of the most widely used organic fertilizers in Europe, the United States and South America, where the profitability of crops such as corn has increased significantly, when compared to other types of organic fertilizers, according to the criteria of the aforementioned authors, because worm humus has high levels of nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium.

Design by @amestyj with images of his property.

Final considerations
Dear readers, it is feasible that some producers are unaware of the correct implementation of these technologies, such as the application dose of worm humus, which is why it is important to conduct research to optimize the proper management of this type of organic alternatives that stimulate growth, crop quality and activate the soil biota to achieve an excellent decomposition of organic matter in the ecosystem.

Bibliographic references
- Díaz, D. and Montenegro, W. (2005). Evaluation of doses and moments of application of earthworm humus on growth and yield of corn crop. Unpublished graduate work. National Agrarian University, Nicaragua.

- CIARA Foundation. (n.d.). Agroecological practices. Caracas: CIARA.

- Ingham, E. (2005). The compost tea preparation manual; methods and newer methods. Soil food web incorporation. Fifth edition. Corvallis, OR.

- Moreno, F. and Díaz, L. (2008). Sustainable agriculture for the tropics. San Cristóbal: Moreno y Díaz editores.

- Somarraba, R. and Guzmán, G. (2004). Analysis of the influence of sugarcane and bovine manure as substrate in red Californian earthworm for humus production. Unpublished graduate work. National Agrarian University. Managua, Nicaragua.

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