Dear readers, bioproducts are constituted by a wide group of biofertilizers, biostimulants and biopesticides, which are the result according to Ramos et al., (2013), of the application of biotechnology that transforms biomass, non-food crops, forest mass, plant residues and among others, used in agricultural inputs, their use in food production has increased taking the necessary importance worldwide, as they are part of organic agriculture as support in the agricultural conversion process. According to Rodríguez (2009), it is an alternative agriculture that aims to obtain food of the highest nutritional quality while respecting the environment and preserving soil fertility, through optimal use of the resources present in the locality, without the application of chemical-synthetic products.
The importance of these bioproducts lies in their ability to supplement or mobilize nutrients with a minimum use of non-renewable resources, it also has the advantages that microbial processes are fast and can be applied in small or large agricultural production units to solve specific local problems. The application of them is a very viable alternative for our environment, which allows to give plants the necessary nutrients, reduce production costs and reduce the environmental polluting effect.
Among the benefits of bioproducts for a soil-plant system, according to Castilla (2006), they can be the following:
- Stimulate the process of seed germination and rooting.
- Increase the availability of nutrients progressively
- Improve the soil structure by the action that microorganisms may have in the formation of soil aggregates.
The soil can maintain its fertility at acceptable levels for crops as long as the nutrients that are lost are replenished, this replenishment can be done naturally with the decomposition of organic matter or artificially or artificially with inorganic fertilizers and organic bioproducts. The contribution of nutrients through bioproducts is carried out through a biological process in which organisms decompose and assimilate the nutrients necessary for their vital functions; and provide plants with the essential elements for the production of crops.
Among the bio preparations, biofertilizers can be mentioned, which are prepared from microorganisms, green fertilizers and manure, up to plant extracts and are found in the soil naturally; however, their populations have been affected by the use of inorganic products. Biofertilization aims to improve soil fertility with the use of microorganisms that allow maintaining the availability of nutrients for plants in the soil solution, such as bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen (Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum) and fungi that live on the roots of plants (mycorrhiza) and phosphorus solubilizers, allowing them to absorb nutrients better.
Dear readers, biopreparations were mainly used in organic agriculture for the efficient management of crops without incurring the contamination of agricultural ecosystems, today they also play a fundamental role in the processes of traditional agriculture, since, it has begun to use fertilizer supplement, and in the various agronomic practices necessary for the maintenance of crops. In fact, they are compatible with the most advanced agricultural techniques of an agroecological nature, which is the cornerstone of sustainable agriculture.
Castilla, L. 2006. Biofertilization in integrated nutrient management for plant nutrition. En: Biofertilization: Viable alternative for plant nutrition. Colombian Society of Soil Science. Chapter Tolima. Pp. 7 – 16.
Ramos, L., Arozarena, D., Reyna, G., Telo, C., Ramírez, P., Lescaille, A. & Martín, A.G. (2013). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus Mega therium and Phytomas-E: an effective alternative for reducing the consumption of mineral fertilizers in Psidium guajava, L. var. Cuban red dwarf. Tropical Crops.
Rodríguez, N. (2009). Use of organic fertilizers in greenhouse tomato production. Terra Latinoamericana, 27(4), 319-327.
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