Organic fertilizers are ecological alternatives that allow us to provide the soil with the necessary organic matter and its fertility, these products are obtained from the decomposition and transformation of waste of vegetable or animal origin, such as, for example, bovine manure, crop residues, among others. These organic fertilizers also become a great alternative for recycling nutrients using local resources or waste from agricultural production units, a lot of research has been done with these fertilizers where their use has had good results for the growth and development of plants, in addition to this, it is possible to significantly reduce the use of synthetic products and therefore the pollution of agroecosystems.
In this same vein, we can say that organic fertilizers also allow to enhance the biodiversity of the soil, since, said fertilizers have a high load of microorganisms that can be added to the soil and together with the biota present in soil allow to decompose the organic matter from the crops presents through its leaves and roots which generates a soil in balance; favoring the proper nutrition of the plants and a healthy plant is less susceptible to pests and diseases, on the other hand, production costs are reduced.
On this occasion we will explain step by step how to make a Bocashi-type fertilizer, which is nothing more than a product resulting from the fermentation of organic matter, is of Japanese origin and is called bocashi in the Japanese language because according to some authors it means to steam the materials that make up the fertilizer, since the heat generated in the fermentation process is used.
Without further ado let's start with the 6 steps for the preparation of fermented organic fertilizer.
1. First of all, the type of organic matter to be used must be selected, since, each of the ingredients, so to speak, fulfills a fundamental function within the process, for example, manures, although they provide various nutritional elements, generally contain more nitrogen, the forest floor helps with the inoculation of microorganisms that help to decompose the organic materials used, to help the aeration of the compost, rice husk or sawdust can be used, and to provide energy for the microorganisms present that help the fermentation process, molasses can be applied.
2. After locating the materials to be used, the amount to be made is decided, to obtain the amount of three bags of approximately 40 kilos of Bocashi the following amounts must be located.
- Land of forest 40 kilos
- Bovine manure 40 kilos
- Rice husk 40 kilos
- To dilute 2 liters of molasses in 4 liters of water
- number Charcoal 40 kilos
3. Each material is divided into three parts of 13 kilos, with the intention of placing them in layers, you start by placing 13 kilos of all the materials in the following order: forest soil, bovine manure, rice husks and charcoal, take 2 liters of the molasses solution and apply it little by little. Just as the first layer was made, the materials are added in the second and third layers, until it reaches an approximate height of 1.20 meters.
4. After all the layers of the materials are there, they begin to mix with a shovel and the humidity is adjusted to be approximately between 40 and 60 percent, for this the fist test is performed, taking a sample of the mixture with the hand and squeezing, if it does not distill water, it can be said that it has adequate humidity.
5. It is well covered with canvas or plastic to avoid the direct entry of sunlight and water, the pile or the pile made can reach a temperature of up to 40 °C, that's why during the first 4 or 5 days the pile is turned twice a day in the morning and in the afternoon to regulate the temperature, after the five days it is turned only once a day decreasing each time the height of the pile.
6. After about three weeks the material will be ready to be applied or stored in bags in a dry and cool place, it can last stored for use up to three months after its elaboration.
Dear readers, this type of fertilizer has become very famous for the speed of its preparation, it is ideal for orchards and can also be applied on large areas of land, it could be incorporated into the soil with machinery, in this way organic matter, microorganisms and some important nutritional elements are provided, to improve the fertility of the soil and with it the yield of crops. It is also important to mention that different materials can be used, this post is not an airtight recipe, for example, in case you do not have bovine manure, poultry manure can be used.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2011). Preparation and use of the BOCASHI. r, El Salvador, Central America.