[Eng-Spa] Process or Task Management at the Middleware Layer

in StemSociallast year


Hello, Friends of Hive and dear readers, it is a pleasure to be with you presenting topics of science, research, technology, and innovation.
Hola Amigos de Hive y apreciados lectores, un gusto estar con ustedes presentándoles temas de la ciencia, investigación, tecnología e innovación.

I have stated that the middle software layer (operating systems, kernels, micros and nanokernel) is made up of a set of modules that enable the management of processor-based devices, such as the computer, with functions for the management of the same that help to provide facilities.

He manifestado que en la capa intermedia de software (sistemas operativos, núcleos, micros y nanonúcleos) están formados por un conjunto de módulos que posibilitan el manejo de los dispositivos basados en procesadores, como la computadora, con funciones para la gestión del mismo que ayudan a otorgar facilidades.

One of them, we already know from previous posts, is the power management. Today I draw your attention, to another of utmost importance as it is the Task or Process Management, colloquially speaking, the Program Execution in the middle software layer.

Una de ellas, ya la conocemos de post anteriores, siendo esta la administración de energía. Hoy atraigo su atención, a otra de suma importancia como es la Gestión de Tareas o Procesos, coloquialmente hablando, la Ejecución de Programas en la capa intermedia de software.

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The middleware layer is in charge of controlling the execution of processes or tasks. A process or task is understood as a group of executing codes (programs) to which the middleware layer will assign resources and control their execution.

La capa intermedia de software es la encargada de llevar el control de la ejecución de los procesos o tareas. Entendiéndose por proceso o tarea a un grupo de códigos en ejecución (programas) al cual la capa intermedia de software asignará recursos y controlará su ejecución.

These processes are in memory and when they are activated there is an execution point called a thread, creating in another portion of memory a data structure that serves to identify each one of them, which will allow controlling the aspects of its execution called Process Control Block.

Estos procesos están en la memoria y cuando se activan hay un punto de ejecución llamado hilo, creando en otra porción de memoria una estructura de datos que sirve para identificar cada uno de ellos, que permitirá controlar los aspectos de su ejecución denominada Bloque de Control de Proceso.

Generally, it has the following Process State Diagram, Figure 1.

Generalmente, tiene el siguiente Diagrama de Estados de Procesos, Figura 1.

Figure 1. Process State Diagram.
Figura 1. Diagrama de Estados de Procesos.

Taking a walk through Figure 1, everything starts when the processes are being created (New) and attach the identification data and characteristics within the system. They go to the Ready state which means ready to be allocated a processing unit for execution. The scheduler comes into play and orders the process to take possession of the processing unit and execute in the time assigned by the scheduler which has planning criteria (Execute). After the process finishes its execution it goes to the Terminate state.

Dando un paseo por la Figura 1, todo inicia cuando los procesos se están creando (Nuevo) y adjuntan los datos de identificación y características dentro del sistema. Estos pasan al estado de Listo que significa atentos para que le adjudiquen una unidad de procesamiento para su ejecución. Entra en juego el planificador que ordena al proceso tomar posesión de la unidad de procesamiento y ejecutarse en el tiempo asignado por el planificador el cual tiene criterios de planificación (Ejecutar). Luego que el proceso termina su ejecución pasa al estado Terminar.

The above explanation follows a normal procedure. However, if a process is executing and due to some scheduling criterion it must abandon such action and resume its execution later, for example when an interruption, routine call, or I/O request arises, such process will go to the Execute or Wait for states, respectively.

La explicación anterior obedece a un procedimiento normal. Sin embargo, si un proceso se está ejecutando y por algún criterio de planificación debe abandonar dicha acción y retomar su ejecución más tarde, por ejemplo cuando surge una interrupción, llamado a una rutina o un requerimiento de I/O, dicho proceso pasará a los estados de Ejecución o Espera, respectivamente.

In the execution of processes or tasks, the resumption of their execution depends not only on the order to do so but also on how and where the process was left to continue. For example, in Real-Time Systems there are conditions of completion deadlines that must be met, otherwise the process or task will not be able to conclude its execution.

En la ejecución de los procesos o tareas la reanudación de su ejecución no solo depende de la orden de hacerlo, también depende del cómo y dónde quedó el proceso para continuar. Por ejemplo, en los Sistemas de Tiempo Real hay condiciones de plazos de finalización que deben ser atendidos, de lo contrario el proceso o tarea no podrá concluir su ejecución.

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Task or process management intervenes in the execution of programs, supports the processes, manages how they are performed, the associated time, and allocates resources. This translates into the life of the assignments of these facilities imposed by developers, which are transparent to end-users.

La gestión de tareas o procesos interviene la ejecución de programas, admite los procesos, administra cómo se realizan, el tiempo asociado y asigna recursos. Esto se traduce en la vida de las asignaciones de estas facilidades impuestas por los desarrolladores, que para los usuarios finales son transparentes.

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See you soon, I hope the reading has been enriching.

Nos vemos pronto, espero que la lectura haya sido enriquecedora.

I invite you to visit me and follow me @alfonsoalfonsi.

Los invito a visitarme y seguirme en @alfonsoalfonsi.

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Feria Martínez, J. F. (2021). Administración de sistemas operativos. Editorial Síntesis S.A.

Herrera, C., Hajek, D. & Narciso F. (2020). Principles of Operating Systems (2020 ed.). Amazon Digital Services LLC - KDP Print US.

Figure and Image Credits / Créditos a Figuras e Imágenes

Title image was made by @alfonsoalfonsi using CANVAS and PxHere image.

La imagen del Título fue realizado por @alfonsoalfonsi usando CANVAS e imagen de PxHere.

The separator is my property made with CANVAS and
klipartz image.

El separador es de mi propiedad realizado con CANVAS e imagen de klipartz image.

The banner and photographs are my property. Made with Power Point, Paint and Linerock Investment LTD ToonMe application.

El banner y las fotografías son de mi propiedad. Realizado con PowerPoint, Paint y Linerock Investment LTD Aplicación ToonMe.

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Con el apoyo de la familia.

Trail de TopFiveFamily

Hola @topfivefamily, gracias por apoyar este post. Seguimos en comunicación. Feliz fin de semana.

Me gustan tus publicaciones, en las que de una manera asequible para mí nos brindas información sobre estos temas, @alffonsoalfonsi

Hola @mllg gracias por leer mis post y me alegra que el esfuerzo y dedicación en poder expresar asuntos formales, que pudieran ser complejos, llegue de una forma amigables.


Interesting read, and the post was actually really clear and easy to understand! thanks!


Hello @mezume, thank you for your comment. I try to carry and lightly present these topics, as far as possible. I hope you continue to achieve this goal. Thank you.


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Thank you @stemsocial for supporting this kind of post. We remain in communication.

I apologise for the delay in reading and commenting out your blog. Last week my life was hectic, as I mentioned already in several blogs of others and myself. I hence got some delay with my activities on chain. I am now slowly clearing the stack of posts that I noted as interesting for a read, and here I am!

First, I would like to thank you a lot for this instructive post. Next, I have a small question. I am wondering about the cost in resource to move some running job back to a ready mode, and vice versa. Could this be a problem if we have tons of jobs running? Thanks in advance for your answer.

Hi @lemouth. Processes or tasks can be in one state at a time, the detail lies in what happens behind the scenes.
In the architecture of the processor, several modules must work, activate, deactivate, store, etc. Then, the performance and associated cost is increasing, as tasks are running in parallel, which is the norm nowadays.
That is, we have multiprocessing and tasks running simultaneously on different processor cores, which consumes energy, time, and resources. Thank you for establishing this communication.

Mmmmh I see. Thanks for the clarification!


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