For example:
operator bool() const
{
return col != 0;
}
col
is an int.
How does operator bool() const
work?
For example:
operator bool() const
{
return col != 0;
}
col
is an int.
How does operator bool() const
work?
Member functions of the form
operator TypeName()
are conversion operators. They allow objects of the class type to be used as if they were of type TypeName
and when they are, they are converted to TypeName
using the conversion function.
In this particular case, operator bool()
allows an object of the class type to be used as if it were a bool
. For example, if you have an object of the class type named obj
, you can use it as
if (obj)
This will call the operator bool()
, return the result, and use the result as the condition of the if
.
It should be noted that operator bool()
is A Very Bad Idea and you should really never use it. For a detailed explanation as to why it is bad and for the solution to the problem, see "The Safe Bool Idiom."
(C++0x, the forthcoming revision of the C++ Standard, adds support for explicit conversion operators. These will allow you to write a safe explicit operator bool()
that works correctly without having to jump through the hoops of implementing the Safe Bool Idiom.)
bool
), no, you can't assign to it. If it were a modifiable lvalue (e.g. bool&
) then you could assign to it. As for correctness, I argue that an operator bool()
is always incorrect because it allows use of a class-type object in a huge number of situations where you never want it used. Safe Bool is a far superior alternative.
Jan 5 '11 at 3:17
explicit operator bool()
. Do I understand correctly?
operator bool() const
{
return col != 0;
}
Defines how the class is convertable to a boolean value, the const
after the ()
is used to indicate this method does not mutate (change the members of this class).
You would usually use such operators as follows:
airplaysdk sdkInstance;
if (sdkInstance) {
std::cout << "Instance is active" << std::endl;
} else {
std::cout << "Instance is in-active error!" << std::endl;
}
I'd like to give more codes to make it clear.
struct A
{
operator bool() const { return true; }
};
struct B
{
explicit operator bool() const { return true; }
};
int main()
{
A a1;
if (a1) cout << "true" << endl; // OK: A::operator bool()
bool na1 = a1; // OK: copy-initialization selects A::operator bool()
bool na2 = static_cast<bool>(a1); // OK: static_cast performs direct-initialization
B b1;
if (b1) cout << "true" << endl; // OK: B::operator bool()
// bool nb1 = b1; // error: copy-initialization does not consider B::operator bool()
bool nb2 = static_cast<bool>(b1); // OK: static_cast performs direct-initialization
}
It's user-defined implicit
conversion function to convert your class into either true
or false
.
//usage
bool value = yourclassinstance; //yourclassinstance is converted into bool!
It's an implicit conversion to bool
. I.e. wherever implicit conversions are allowed, your class can be converted to bool
by calling that method.
As the others have said, it's for type conversion, in this case to a bool
. For example:
class A {
bool isItSafe;
public:
operator bool() const
{
return isItSafe;
}
...
};
Now I can use an object of this class as if it's a boolean:
A a;
...
if (a) {
....
}
When writing my own unique_ptr, I found this case. Given std::unique_ptr
's operator==
:
template<class T1, class D1, class T2, class D2>
bool operator==(const unique_ptr<T1, D1>& x, const unique_ptr<T2, D2>& y);
template <class T, class D>
bool operator==(const unique_ptr<T, D>& x, nullptr_t) noexcept;
template <class T, class D>
bool operator==(nullptr_t, const unique_ptr<T, D>& x) noexcept;
And this test case from libstdcxx:
std::unique_ptr<int> ptr;
if (ptr == 0)
{ }
if (0 == ptr)
{ }
if (ptr != 0)
{ }
if (0 != ptr)
{ }
Note because that ptr
has a explicit operator bool() const noexcept;
, so operator overload resolution
works fine here, e.g., ptr == 0
chooses
template <class T, class D>
bool operator==(const unique_ptr<T, D>& x, nullptr_t) noexcept;`.
If it has no explicit
keyword here, ptr
in ptr == 0
will be converted into bool
, then bool
will be converted into int
, because bool operator==(int, int)
is built-in and 0
is int
. What is waiting for us is ambiguous overload resolution error.
Here is a Minimal, Complete, and Verifiable example:
#include <cstddef>
struct A
{
constexpr A(std::nullptr_t) {}
operator bool()
{
return true;
}
};
constexpr bool operator ==(A, A) noexcept
{
return true;
}
constexpr bool operator ==(A, std::nullptr_t) noexcept
{
return true;
}
constexpr bool operator ==(std::nullptr_t, A) noexcept
{
return true;
}
int main()
{
A a1(nullptr);
A a2(0);
a1 == 0;
}
gcc:
prog.cc: In function 'int main()':
prog.cc:30:8: error: ambiguous overload for 'operator==' (operand types are 'A' and 'int')
30 | a1 == 0;
| ~~ ^~ ~
| | |
| A int
prog.cc:30:8: note: candidate: 'operator==(int, int)' <built-in>
30 | a1 == 0;
| ~~~^~~~
prog.cc:11:16: note: candidate: 'constexpr bool operator==(A, A)'
11 | constexpr bool operator ==(A, A) noexcept
| ^~~~~~~~
prog.cc:16:16: note: candidate: 'constexpr bool operator==(A, std::nullptr_t)'
16 | constexpr bool operator ==(A, std::nullptr_t) noexcept
| ^~~~~~~~
prog.cc:30:8: error: use of overloaded operator '==' is ambiguous (with operand types 'A' and 'int')
a1 == 0;
~~ ^ ~
prog.cc:16:16: note: candidate function
constexpr bool operator ==(A, std::nullptr_t) noexcept
^
prog.cc:11:16: note: candidate function
constexpr bool operator ==(A, A) noexcept
^
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(int, int)
a1 == 0;
^
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(float, int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(double, int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long double, int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__float128, int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(int, float)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(int, double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(int, long double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(int, __float128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(int, long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(int, long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(int, __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(int, unsigned int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(int, unsigned long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(int, unsigned long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(int, unsigned __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long, int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long long, int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__int128, int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned int, int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long, int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long long, int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned __int128, int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(float, float)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(float, double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(float, long double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(float, __float128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(float, long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(float, long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(float, __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(float, unsigned int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(float, unsigned long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(float, unsigned long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(float, unsigned __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(double, float)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(double, double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(double, long double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(double, __float128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(double, long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(double, long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(double, __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(double, unsigned int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(double, unsigned long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(double, unsigned long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(double, unsigned __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long double, float)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long double, double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long double, long double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long double, __float128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long double, long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long double, long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long double, __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long double, unsigned int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long double, unsigned long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long double, unsigned long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long double, unsigned __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__float128, float)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__float128, double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__float128, long double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__float128, __float128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__float128, long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__float128, long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__float128, __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__float128, unsigned int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__float128, unsigned long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__float128, unsigned long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__float128, unsigned __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long, float)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long, double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long, long double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long, __float128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long, long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long, long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long, __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long, unsigned int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long, unsigned long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long, unsigned long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long, unsigned __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long long, float)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long long, double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long long, long double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long long, __float128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long long, long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long long, long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long long, __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long long, unsigned int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long long, unsigned long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long long, unsigned long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(long long, unsigned __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__int128, float)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__int128, double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__int128, long double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__int128, __float128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__int128, long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__int128, long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__int128, __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__int128, unsigned int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__int128, unsigned long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__int128, unsigned long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(__int128, unsigned __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned int, float)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned int, double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned int, long double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned int, __float128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned int, long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned int, long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned int, __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned int, unsigned int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned int, unsigned long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned int, unsigned long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned int, unsigned __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long, float)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long, double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long, long double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long, __float128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long, long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long, long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long, __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long, unsigned int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long, unsigned long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long, unsigned long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long, unsigned __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long long, float)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long long, double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long long, long double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long long, __float128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long long, long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long long, long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long long, __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long long, unsigned int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long long, unsigned long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long long, unsigned long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned long long, unsigned __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned __int128, float)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned __int128, double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned __int128, long double)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned __int128, __float128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned __int128, long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned __int128, long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned __int128, __int128)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned __int128, unsigned int)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned __int128, unsigned long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned __int128, unsigned long long)
prog.cc:30:8: note: built-in candidate operator==(unsigned __int128, unsigned __int128)
1 error generated.
Another common use is for std containers to do equality comparison on key values inside custom objects
class Foo
{
public: int val;
};
class Comparer { public:
bool operator () (Foo& a, Foo&b) const {
return a.val == b.val;
};
class Blah
{
std::set< Foo, Comparer > _mySet;
};
operator ()
not operator bool
. They are totally different. operator ()
is the call operator, so that a Comparer
can be called as a function. That operator ()
just happens to return bool
, but that does not make it the same as operator bool
, which simply allows for an implicit cast to bool
.
Aug 16 '14 at 2:56