Life cycle is a series of phases or stages something passes through during it's lifetime.God Almighty in his wisdom and power stabilized and keep the world exist by recycling human beings from conception to infant, infant to young adult,young to full adult,old age and death. So as some people passed away, others are coming to the world through birth.
Just as it applicable to human,it also does to Buildings. Buildings as a structure as series of stages it passes through from initial development to obsolescence stage. As soon as building is completed,the physical structures begin to reduce both in value and usefulness.
Though the rate at which building decline are different from one building to another because of certain factors,but there are series of recognisable phases through which building passes through before it worn out and riped to be cleared away so as to build another one.
These phases or stages that building passes through from initial development to obsolescence and renewal is known as estate life cycle.Even though it is not easy to identify in details all stages in buildings life,five stages can be identify which are
(1) Pre-development stage:As the name suggest this is the stage before any construction take place.The land for the building may be thick forest or land with existing dilapidated structure waiting for demolition or the one that has not been used for construction before. Most activities at this stage rest with land owner having envision the best and adequate use which such land may be put.
Also at this stage expenditure is usually restricted because the owner may considered such expenditure as a waste as soon as real construction commence.
The problem at this stage is not much as long as this stage is short,but where the land is left for longer period there may be a series of problems emanating from abandon the land as it may turns to dumping ground where people throw refuse.
(2) Newly developed stage:At this stage construction has taken place and building has completed. The building is new in all respect and it should fit for use in all manner and not affected by any form of obsolescence.
The components and all other fitting and finishes are new. But in reality only few buildings meet up the standard as problem may set in due to bad and inadequate planning at conception stage.
The building may not properly designed to cater for any external or environmental change that may occur between planning and actual construction and also there may be defect in construction from contractor handling the project.
All these might introduce elements of obsolescence even as at when Buildings is still new. The duration of this stage is determine by rate at which the facilities decline or the rate at which modern Buildings is developed.
Newly developed Buildings
(3) Middle life stage: This stage happen to be the longest in life cycle of building.Middle life set in or start as soon as traces of being new in utilities, value and physical outlook begin to disappear. At this stage, physical decay such as wall cracking,roof leaking and fittings damage is normally taking care of,and the level or rate at which maintenance is carried out and loss in value of properties is minimal at this stage.
Building at middle life stage
(4) Old age:The end of middle life stage signify the beginning of old stage.At this stage the building begin to sink rapidly both in economic and physical status and all fittings and equipments has become out dated.
Maintenance at this stage is very high and may not be necessary as building has limited life span as it only a matter of time before Building become obsolete.The major issue at this stage is that expenses is usually greater and higher than return on investment.
Building at old age
(5) Total Obsolescence:This is last stage in life cycle of Buildings. Obsolescence simply mean to grow old. At this stage building has grow old and become dilapidated. Some may even be at verge of collapse or ready for demolition to pave way for new building to be erected.
There are three types of Obsolescence that may occur in building,physical, economic and functional obsolescence, though both economic and functional obsolescence may surface at any stages in buildings life cycle but physical obsolescence is mainly associated with last stage of building life.some of features at this stage are wall cracked,wear and tear in all components of building and so on.
Buildings at obsolescence stage