The Sanatorium Movement, and a Collage for LMAC

in Let's Make a Collage2 years ago (edited)

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I was in high school when I first read Thomas Mann's Magic Mountain. The novel is a masterpiece in which the major character suffers from tuberculosis and receives treatment in a sanatorium.

Many years later, while my husband was competing at a billiards tournament in Colorado Springs, Colorado, I chanced upon a building that had once served as a sanatorium for people suffering from consumption. Consumption is one of the terms used to describe tuberculosis in the nineteenth century. The building was the main hall of Colorado State University in Colorado Springs.

Historic Cragmore Sanatorium, Today the Main Hall of Colorado University at Colorado Springs, CO.
cragmore sanitarium Main Hall former 3.0 un of colo at colorado springs.jpg
Image credit: Xnatedawgx. Used under a CC 3.0 license.

Cragmor opened in 1905. It was designed to accommodate wealthy patients. The architecture reflected the belief that rest, and dry mountain air were good for consumptives. There was no cure for TB at the time, besides these lifestyle interventions. Streptomycin, an antibiotic, would not be used in the treatment of tuberculosis until 1943.

However, there were earlier interventions, besides lifestyle, that were helpful in some cases. One of these was artificial pneumothorax.

Carlo Forlanini Performing Artificial Pneumothorax (Possibly 1882)
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Image credit: Welcome Trust. This file comes from Science Museum Group, in the United Kingdom. Refer to Wellcome blog post (archive). Used under a CC 4.0 license.

Artificial pneumonthorax is a surgical intervention premised on the principle of rest. An amazing, trip-back-in-time, 1919 article in the American Journal of Nursing explains in glowing terms the procedure and its benefits. The goal is rest of the affected organ. A needle is inserted into the lung and air (or nitrogen) is pumped in, sometimes in a series of procedures over weeks or months. The lung collapses, and rests.

Pneumothorax Device Used by Forlanini
pneumothorax device Carlo_Forlanini Wellcome 4.0 credit line.jpg
Image credit: Welcome Trust. This file comes from Science Museum Group, in the United Kingdom. Refer to Wellcome blog post (archive). Used under a CC 4.0 license.

Pneumothorax can occur naturally (a spontaneously collapsed lung), but today is also used as a surgical intervention in a number of conditions.

Rise of the Sanatorium Movement
Although epidemics of infectious disease swept across Europe and the United States in the 1800s, tuberculosis was by far the leading cause of death in those places. The rise of sanatoriums was one result of this death toll. Although these isolated (for sanatoriums did isolate patients) health facilities were often located in mountainous regions, in Italy maritime locales were favored.

Sävsjö Sanatorium, Sweden
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Morens Photo. Public domain.
In 1907 this sanatorium was constructed for the treatment of severe lung disease, essentially tuberculosis. The facility was surrounded by pine forests and vegetation.

Children Taking Sun and Sea Cure At Marine Hospital, Florence, Italy

marine hospital of florence Children.jpg
Image credit:Himetop The History of Medicine Topographical Database.Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License
In keeping with the theory that a marine climate was beneficial to patients suffering from tuberculosis, this Florence hospice was constructed between 1861 and 1869.

The End of the Sanatorium Movement: The Madras Study

A Silesian physician who had suffered from tuberculosis, Hermann Brehmer, is credited with founding the first sanatorium, in 1870.

Brehmersche Heilanstalt für Lungenkranke
sanatorium first bremehen  public c  1870.jpg
Image credit: Public domain

In 1956, Dr Wallace Fox, Director of the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre in Madras, India began a study on the health benefits of treatment in a sanatorium. He compared outcomes of home domiciled and sanatorium domiciled patients (on a TB drug regimen). The five-year study showed that treatment at home was as effective as sanatorium treatment. Also, there was no difference in relapse rate. Sanatoriums across the world closed shop, or converted to other uses.

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My Collage

Although I made a collage this week, I am not competing in the contest. For me, the competition was never the best part of LMAC. It's the community and the art adventure that I love. If I stopped making collages it would be like giving up coffee: unthinkable :)

When I saw @shaka's amazing photo, I was certain I would keep the beautiful blue lake.

@shaka's Template Photo

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Then I thought of my visit to Colorado Springs and the Broadmoor Hotel. I had visited the Broadmoor when I was in Colorado, and that image was in my mind. This hotel had once been an exclusive tuberculosis sanatorium.

Broadmoor Hotel
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Image credit:Keith Knapp. Used under a CC 3.0 license.

The buildings in my collage are actually from a picture of the Kreuth Sanatorium and Spa in Bavaria. The other elements in my collage (doctors, lake ripple and patient) are from pixabay.

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I hope everyone in the growing LMAC community is having as much fun as I have had this week in making my collage and writing my blog. I thank @shaka, as I always do, for creating this opportunity and for fostering a community where everyone is welcome.

The rules for LMAC may be found at @shaka's blog.
Our school, run by the inimitable @quantumg may be found here.
And our Discord Channel is open for community members to touch base.

Good luck, to everyone!


As a nurse I understand your collage, I would only add:

The BCG vaccine (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin), used in the prevention of tuberculosis, was developed by two researchers, Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin in 1921.

Its discovery made it possible to eradicate the terrible tuberculosis.

Today 2021, studies are underway to determine if the BCG vaccine has an impact on the reduction of Covid-19 mortality.

In countries that have a policy of vaccinating all newborns, it has been observed that the mortality rate of Covid 19 is lower.

I liked your collage and the mix of art and health.

Thank you @eve66. Thanks for the reference to BCG. I was planning to expand this theme into a more complete science blog and I'll be sure to include BCG in that blog. I am aware of the studies revolving around BCG and COVID. Fascinating. There are so many unanswered questions about COVID. I remember reading one study that showed reduced incidence in people who have the thalassemia trait. And more severe disease course in people who have elevated ferritin. In a few years we will know so much more. But, right now people are dying and we really are stumbling around.

Thank you for appreciating my collage. It was a relaxing exercise, as it always is. Take care my friend.

Hello friend, excellent review of tuberculosis disease, the scientists at that time were quite advanced since they carried out this procedure of injecting oxygen into the lungs of patients, today the natural environment helps many of the people who suffer from a disease , excellent used image of the sanatorium. Good luck in the contest.

Thank you my friend for your kind comments. Going through the history of TB was sobering, especially pictures of children emaciated by disease. I loved making the collage, though. When I do one of these, I get so involved, it feels as though I'm inside the photo :)

I am not in the competition, and probably having more fun because of that. I wish good health and peace to you and your family, my friend @cetb2008.

Hello friend, thank you blessings for you, may God fill you with great health

Your awesome collage is a perfect analogy of the current times with the covid-19 hanging on. It is also affecting the lungs like TB. Of course the earth was not heavily populated like now.

Sorry to know you are not competing in the contest your collages are always extremely popular.I know what you meant about enjoying the fun and friends and that’s what it’s all about.😊🌺

I'm not really a competitive person. I want to win, but I also don't want anyone to lose. This way I win all around.

I guess the collage is influenced by the pandemic. That wasn't conscious, but how could it not be? Have you gotten that shot yet? I forgot when your appointment is.

Thank you for your kind words about my collage. I love it when you visit, my friend from up North. Looking forward to more pictures from your backyard highway this spring.

Most welcome and good morning A.G.,

My appointment for the vaccination is this Wednesday. I will be glad to get it as at least it is some protection against this terrible virus that is not letting up. Watching the news around the world of the many deaths is devastating.

As I type this the squirrel is on the back deck railing looking at me through the window. I’ll take him out some peanuts.🐿

Have a wonderful week!

Good luck with the shot, my friend. Remember, water. They also say, if you can stand the side effects best not to take an anti-inflammatory (aspirin, Ibuprofen,ex.)to get through the discomfort. It is believed the anti-inflammatories might tamp down the development of antibodies. When I got my first shot I had to take extra prednisone because I really had a strong flare (my autoimmune disease). This likely muted the development of antibodies, but you do what you can with what you have :))

Thanks for the note about the squirrel. I have the most wonderful mental image!

Thanks A.G. For reminding me of the water. I’ll be glad when the vaccination is done. I don’t take any medications...probably should be on some but try not to take anything.

You are welcome for the little note about the squirrel. Actually when I went outside the squirrel was waiting on the deck and the chipmunk was down on the grass. I threw him a peanut too and the squirrel put a peanut in his mouth and chased the chipmunk away from the area. Squirrel didn’t want to share the peanuts. 😀


A beautiful and amazing history😍 incredible post! Congratulations🌹

Thank you very much for coming by and for your kind assessment of my blog! I love to write and I love to make collages :)

@agmoore I can see🌹 it's a excellent post👏

Thank you for the history lesson. Every time I thank science for the amount of lives that are saved thanks to medicines, although in many cases we become addicted to them, but that's another topic. There are so many stories about sanatoriums and many of them are captured in horror and suspense movies. Your collage is very nice and although it does not compete with the others I think it has already won its prize! Thanks Agmoore for the tip you gave to one of my posts, you are very kind. I'm glad you are one of the judges of the contest, I think you have it very well deserved. Hugs and have a nice week!


Thank you for visiting and for your kind words about my blog. I have been fascinated with the sanatorium experience ever since I read the Magic Mountain. I'm extremely attached to my family. It is the cruelest punishment to separate me from them. To do that while someone is ill. That must be a horrible experience.

I thought it was so kind of you to raise money for our afflicted colleague. I lost a friend early to COVID, before we knew what was going to happen. In New York we lost so many lives. I take this virus very seriously.

I don't feel like a judge. Everyone is my friend, so it's just adding my voice to an evaluation of the great collages that come in. They are all so wonderful.

I wish you health and a creative week. Hugs to you, my friend.

I really liked this publication, it has a journalistic touch.
I wanted to see a collage and I found something masterful.

I know you’ll be one of the judges in this week’s contest, and I also know that you and @quantumg will make an excellent assessment of each entry.

Hello @takeyourtomato (that is the best handle ever!) Thank you for your kind words about my blog. I love to write. I don't know much about art, although it brings me great pleasure to create collages for this community.

Quantumg and Shaka know more about art than I do, but I do bring enthusiasm to the task.
I wish you health and the very best week possible.

I think the blue lake made more than one of us fall in love.
This post is fantastic. Sanatoriums bring back memories of some writers and novels I really like. José Antonio Ramos Sucre, in particular, who treated his insomnia in a Swiss sanatorium and Thomas Mann's incredible novel, The Magic Mountain.
I also couldn't help but relate your post to expressionist cinema.
I really enjoyed your post and your collage is superb. I spent a lot of time enlarging and re-shrinking the scene.
A hug, dear @agmoore.

Thank you my ever-gracious and generous @adncabrera. Yes, the Magic Mountain made an indelible impression, at an early early age. I am not familiar with Jose Antonio Ramos Sucre, but you can be sure I will acquaint myself with him now.

It is such a simple collage. The picture was so spectacular. A place we would all want to visit, suggesting myth and natural wonder.🍁 🍂 🍃 🍄

It is always a pleasure to have you visit my blog. You never fail to show grace.

Warmest regards, my friend.

The collage is beautiful, the people on the bridge and the small town all looks perfect for the collage

Thank you my friend, @dwixer. As @shaka explained, I am not in the contest, but do love making the collages. So, I am hear for the fun and the friends--like you :)

This collage is amazing agmoore, the little town and the mountains behind, it's just perfect

That comment means a lot to me, @ohyechi. I had a sense of peace and history when I made the collage. It was a gratifying exercise.

Beautiful collage and an excellent blog about the history of sanatoriums. I really enjoyed it. Great job.

Thank you, @pokerm. Finding obscure pictures that traced the history of sanatoriums was difficult, but worth the effort. I'm happy you found the blog interesting.

Thank you for your engagement on this post, you have recieved ENGAGE tokens.

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I thank you very, very much for that generous assessment, @ddn688. I am not competing in the contest this week, so this collage is for fun. All the more reason to appreciate your kind comment.

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Thank you so much, friend @kismeri. I made that collage for fun. I am not in the contest this week. So, I wish all my friends good luck!

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