Scientific knowledge under the approach of Descartes, Nietzsche and Karl Raimund Popper's philosophy.

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Introduction

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Again in another installment in the field of philosophy ,as part of the knowledge accompanied by scientific popularization, which is about transmitting and making known two approach of philosophical thought, where it is about assuming in a contained way the existence of science and with it the need to differentiate it from other types of knowledge, especially a very important point if it is actually manifested, no matter what philosophical position is assumed scientific knowledge is very important, since it also tries to find the mechanism and the main tools that can establish hypotheses to answer questions within the field of science, to promptly to transmit knowledge and to communicate in general the content provided through this type of knowledge, since scientific knowledge its basis are the following to have an idea of its content, this type of knowledge is a set of ideas and knowledge that are verifiable through an application of a scientific method, for the analysis of the nature of the study and if it has some phenomena that these can be verified in order to support in evidence the study already raised.

The most unique of this content reader friend is the following, commonly the knowledge for those who do not know this of study of a philosophical discipline, as a basis its paradigm the theory of knowledge, that is why it is timely is the central axis, for any research to justify using a scientific elaboration.

Scientific knowledge

. As previously mentioned its basis are the following to have an idea of its content, this type of knowledge is a set of ideas and knowledge that are verifiable through an application of a scientific method, for the analysis of the nature of the study and if it has some phenomena that these can be verified in order to support in evidence the study already raised. More interesting on this topic from my point of view is the management of hypotheses is fundamental, for valid explanations, where the phenomena existing the possibility of being generalized to similar facts and phenomena, since it has the following advantage can be formulated new hypotheses, to maintain the period or researchable cycle, to respond to the investigation of that hypothesis raised.

Features

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[1]-. Systematic.

[2]-.Verifiable.

[3]-.Universal.

[4]-.Transformational.

[5]-.Analytical.

[6]-.Synthetic.

[7]-.Specific.

[8]-.Explanatory.

[9]-.Communicable.

[10]-. Factual.

[11]-. Objective.

[12]-. Provisional.

All this characteristic are important for our training and have knowledge for any research to know how to raise our research and its steps to follow, in addition to this in a previous publication share a topic that is also part of this content, which is the gnoseology, this deals mainly with the essential interpretation of human knowledge, look at the following as to this discipline analyzes the research and the relationship of thought under a conceptual basis in objective situation, grace to the knowledge is defined as an act, spontaneous in terms of its origin is proper to the human being and part of his inner self that makes it unique according to the abstraction of its reality.

Then we have the two approaches.




[Domain source from Wikimedia Commons, René Descartes, Artist According to: Frans Hals (1582/1583-1666).]()

[1]-. René Descartes

Descartes contributed with his knowledge in the field of science, since in the field of physics he founded mechanicism with the principle of inertia in physics, in the field of mathematics he founded it with analytical geometry. He is associated with the Cartesian axes in geometry, which is why he is one of the greats of modern philosophy, since he introduced as a fundamental part of knowledge the discourse of the method, since knowledge is something proper to the human being is based on what he believes indispensable to conduct himself in life, where Descarte in his philosophical approach shows us inclination to get the essence of truth and that this is not absolute, which is part of a simple reasoning, can be done naturally that can be subjected to prejudices or how to check this truth.

To speak of a mathematical method does not mean that they are a method of mathematics or intended for mathematics, but only in terms of the unity of knowledge that he embodies in his metaphor of the tree of knowledge, of the principles of philosophy, not to discuss this or that branch of knowledge, but the very foundation of knowledge. Descartes is very interested in not separating philosophy from science, because he conceives philosophy as a tree, whose roots are metaphysics, the trunk is physics and the branches are the other sciences (medicine, mechanics and morals).Information consulted in René Descartes by Diego Morillo-Velarde, 2001.

It is very fascinating the approach of Descartes as part of modern philosophy, where he involves science to found knowledge, and also the discourse of the method to conduct one's reason well and search for truth in the sciences, was a valuable contribution as a basis of scientific knowledge.


[Domain source from Wikimedia Commons, Friedrich Nietzsche (1944-1900), Author: Friedrich Hartmann (1822–1902) ( )

[2]-. Friedrich Nietzsche

Nietzsche was another pioneer of philosophy where it is based on the search for various alternative, as part of knowledge and the will to power, being clear two very fundamental slope within its conceptualization, the first is based on the language that is built on the most naive prejudice, since errors persist in which these can not be sustained and secondly the projections of being that has outside the language of grammatical categories, in such a way that the two slopes converge in a real language, to create an idea of ala reality, it handles all its context where it questions the method of study and must be linked to metaphysical thinking, what makes it singular stance is the following reader friend, logic itself is a consequent writing of signs on a conceptual basis, where this encompasses assumptions of facts already fully established.

As we have pointed out, its starting point is the radical critique of all realism, of all conceptions that are based on firm and constituted entities, of what knowledge by means of such and such procedures could account for, that is to arrive at the truth. Information consulted in La crítica de la metafísica en Nietzsche by Juan Luis Vernal, page 150, 1987.

He makes very notorious the position of this author, where lies the application of the language of metaphysics to knowledge, since he also wants to give it to understand that knowledge is a judgment as a belief of something, to which also links the moral, his scientific method is structured of a theoretical knowledge and antecedent as part of the history of a fact, as a performance, so it is possible knowledge in a culture to form a society, in which the discourse of knowledge is critical that also above the truth there are other values. Universal equality does not question to what extent it is true of man, since it expresses it in the following way values such as universal equality, truth or validity are the resource of the weak to neutralize the activity of that force, it is a critical approach.


468px-Karl_Popper.jpg
Karl Raimund Popper (1902-Londres, 1994), Author: LSE library, Domain source from Wikimedia Commons.


We have this third position comonparte of scientific philosophy, where this great author Karl Raimund Popper within his world of philosophy handled, founded a conceptual basis, where the logic of scientific research is used, since in most cases applied in the scientific method was science must follow a methodology based on falsification or how to handle other postulates, so be that by many experiments that are performed to verify, trial and error for a valid verification. Where the essence of first order predicate logic comes in to account for such a phenomenon, as a whole fact for its validity of this reasoning contrasts with the invalidity of attempts to confirm a hypothesis, it is good reasoning very concrete even with free will.


Knowledge especially scientific knowledge,
progresses through unjustified (and unjustifiable) anticipations, of conjectures, these conjectures are controlled by criticism; these are attempts of refutations among which severely critical tests are counted.
Conjectures and refutations: the development of scientific knowledge by Karl Raimund Popper, 1994.

knowledge and its foundations, which allows us to define the basis for the construction of a scientific knowledge, which in turn has a systematic structure with its own characteristics, where it is adapted according to the field of study to support a hypothesis to analyze, referring to the analysis of the two positions of philosophy, which converges in the fact that knowledge in the scientific conceptualization must have a theory with background, a scientific method must be used to demonstrate and prove in the search for truth or to answer a hypothesis, which applies either in the social sciences, experimental and pure, which is why the scientific method is adjusted to the reality of each discipline. We must be clear about the following, each hypothesis raised is not easy to know if it has a truth to prove.


[1].-René Descartes by Diego Morillo-Velarde, 2001.


[2].-La crítica de la metafísica en Nietzsche by Juan Luis Vernal, page 150, 1987.


[3].-Conjectures and refutations: the development of scientific knowledge by Karl Raimund Popper, 1994.

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