# Experimentations: What should be done to test the effects of a cause and an effect in any investigation of any kind?

in OCD2 months ago

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You know, experimentation implies that one is testing a variable or several variables, if they have effect or effects in any study. So studies are relevant thorugh all our lives, and we are just doing investigations to see how things are going on.

Experimentation implies that there is causality between a dependent variable and an independent variable. The dependent variable can be sale and the independent variable can be advertising. And we are trying to see, if advertising has any effect on sales, and that we can do these investigations in different settings and contexts, with people and with different measures.

Any study of the weather conditions must measure what is going on in the weather, and we are counting different instances, and we are trying to use experiments, factor analysis, regression analysis, time series and structural equation modeling to find how the problem and the model should be, and we are trying to explain something, and the better the study is, the better is often the explanation, and we are finding which effects that are present in any study, and this is not just in the weather analysis and the weather forecasts, but it is also the case in economic studies and in studies in marketing, strategies and information.

All studies with experiments begin with the classical case. And this is simple a measure of the dependent variable and the independent variable in relation to just see what is happening with the dependent variable if there is no independent variable. And we are using validity to see whether there is scientific foundation for what has been done. And we have statistical conclusion validity, internal validity, construct validity and external validity. And all these types of validity have something to do, if we have measured the things as we should measure in the study in question, and how strong the effect is. Validity means that a study is valid, and that means that we can be sure of what has happened.

There are many variants of doing experimentation, if we are searching in all books and all kinds of studies in the whole world. And we find the use of experiments in many scientific disciplines, and we are trying to find whether a variable has an effect on something, and how large or small the effect really is. And experiments are much used in testing in behavior and in medicine. And causality is the idea here, that is that things we observe in the markets and in the organizations are coming from something, we cannot just have too much vacuum in scientific research, because this will lead to frustrations and ignorance in the environments that are present. And we find this kind of logic in many studies around the globe. David Hume is a popular Scottish philosopher, and he meant that the connection of causality between two events is not a connection based on necessity, but it is instead a connection of regular association of ideas based on earlier experiences on similar events.

So, we find much information and philosophy about the experiments in the design studies to experiments from Cook & Campbell in their known books from 1979, and they are researchers employed at Suracuse University in New York in the United States of America. And doing research with experiments is really doing things properly, and we can use statistical analysis to find the answers we are looking for. And sometimes things are explorative, other times they are descriptive, and third times they are causal. So, if several persons are doing the studies, and they are reaching the same results, we can be convinced that the cause and the effect is real!

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Sverre Larsen

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