[ENG] Pompeii a city unearthed after 17 centuries [ESP] Pompeya una ciudad desenterrada después de 17 siglos

in Haveyoubeenhere5 days ago

Pompeii a city unearthed after 17 centuries

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The amphitheater, built around 70 BC, it was the first Roman amphitheater to be built in stone (El anfiteatro, construido alrededor del 70 AC, fue el primer anfiteatro romano que se construyó en piedra). Photo by Wilfredo Urbina

     Dear friends, readers, and community curators who honor me with your reading. I present below a post about the city of Pompeii, which I visited, together with its neighbor Herculaneum, while I was visiting professor at the Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy, illustrated with photos of the mathematician friend Dr. Wilfredo Urbina (https://www.facebook.com/wilfredo.urbina), professor at Roosevelt University, Chicago Illinois, USA, who recently took a walk-through Pompeii and has kindly allowed me to use his photos to accompany this writing. The archaeological complex of Pompeii, Herculaneum and the Torre Annunziata has been a World Heritage Site since 1997.


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The Big Theater was built during the time of the Samnite tribes, years later it was completely rebuilt, in the 2nd century BC. C (El Teatro grande fue edificado durante la época de las tribus samnita, años después fue totalmente reconstruido, en el siglo II a. C.) Photo by Wilfredo Urbina

     Pompeii is an ancient Italian city, in the province of Naples, in southern Italy, which stretched along the slopes of the Vesuvius volcano, located 9 kilometers from the city, which was buried under 6 meters of ash and pumice by an eruption of this volcano in the 8th century after Christ. A good part of its inhabitants died because of the pyroclastic flow of the eruption, it is estimated that its population was 30 thousand people, although only about two thousand bodies have been found. I still vividly keep in my memory the faces of the people who died burned there, thanks to the excavations that have been carried out since the eighteenth century, work that allowed a good part of the city to float, it is said that 60%, in magnificent state of conservation.


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Cobbled Street in Pompeii, note that sidewalks were already being manufactured by then (Calle empedrada de Pompeya, nótese que ya para ese entonces se fabricaban las aceras) Photo by Wilfredo Urbina

     Together with Herculaneum, also devastated by Vesuvius, Pompeii belongs to the Campania region; the city had an irregular distribution, with straight streets that form what is called a grid with a thistle, a north-south facing street and two decumans with east-west orientation, paved, with a slope so that the water circulated when it rained and with sidewalks for the circulation of pedestrians.


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The Lupanar, Pompeii's most famous brothel, is an amazing site to see in Pompeii. It is a small two-story building, found in the 19th century (El Lupanar, el burdel más famoso de Pompeya, es un sitio sorprendente que ver en Pompeya. Es un pequeño edificio de dos plantas, encontrado en el siglo XIX) Photo by Wilfredo Urbina

     According to archaeologists and historians, who have studied it extensively, the city had buildings such as the Forum, which is located right in front of the main entrance of the enclosure, which was a civic and commercial center, in a rectangular shape of about 145 meters long by 38 wide; on one of its sides, was the Temple of Jupiter, and it was surrounded by statues, its paving was made of stone. It featured the Macellum, a market with a water fountain in the center. It is said that it was built at the time of the Roman Empire. Today it can be seen as it was when the eruption of Vesuvius occurred. On the other hand, there are remains of the Basilica, headquarters of the equivalent to the judicial power, where justice was administered, it was a building with five doors that led to the Forum. In front of it was the Temple of Apollo.


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Water fountain(Fuente de agua) Photo by Wilfredo Urbina

     The city erected temples to its gods, such as those named Jupiter and Apollo, as well as temples in honor of Isis and Venus, among others. There are several versions of when and how the remains of the city were discovered: one version claims that it was discovered in the 16th century almost by chance when they were preparing to build an aqueduct on the site; on the other hand, it is said that it was discovered in 1738 by a farmer who found one of the buildings coming out of the ground; another version stipulates that the city was found in 1756 thanks to some manuscripts that indicated its location.


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Interior of a house with its arches and its ceilings adorned with frescoes (Interior de una casa con sus arcos y sus techos adornados con frescos). Photo by Wilfredo Urbina

     Today, Vesuvius is an active volcano and is surrounded by more than 3 million people, who live in constant danger, because if an eruption occurs, with the same characteristics as those that destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum, it would be necessary to regret the death of many more people.


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Floor decorated with tiles. In the background a garden with statues. (Piso decorado con baldosas. Al fondo un jardín con estatuas). Photo by Wilfredo Urbina

     Consulted articles:
Pompeya: http://www.tarraconensis.com/pompei_romano/pompei_romana.html
La arquitectura de Pompeya: https://durmi.com/la-arquitectura-de-pompeya/

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Vesuvius, a volcano that is only dormant (El Vesubio, un volcán que solo está aletargado) [Image] (https://volcanes.org/monte-vesubio/)


Pompeya una ciudad desenterrada después de 17 siglos


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A column in the Forum of Pompeii (Columna en el Foro de Pompeya) Photo by Wilfredo Urbina


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Very deteriorated engraving, on a wall (Grabado muy deteriorado, en una pared) . Photo by Wilfredo Urbina

     Estimados amigos, lectores y curadores de las comunidades que me honran con su lectura. Les presento a continuación un post sobre la ciudad de Pompeya, la cual visité, conjuntamente con su vecina Herculano, mientras estaba de profesor invitado en la Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italia, ilustrado con fotos del amigo matemático Dr.Wilfredo Urbina (https://www.facebook.com/wilfredo.urbina), profesor de la Universidad de Roosevelt, en Chicago Illinois, EEUU, quien recientemente estuvo de paseo por Pompeya y gentilmente me ha permitido usar sus fotos para acompañar este escrito. El conjunto arqueológico de Pompeya, Herculano y la Torre Annunziata es Patrimonio de la Humanidad desde 1997.


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Pompeii had a cardo (street facing north-south) and two decumanos (street facing east-west), and its streets are paved with a certain slope so that the rainwater would flow [Pompeya contaba con un cardo (calle con orientación norte-sur) y dos decumanos (calle con orientación este-oeste), y sus calles se encuentran pavimentadas con cierta pendiente para que el agua de la lluvia fluyera]. Photo by Wilfredo Urbina

     Pompeya es una antigua ciudad italiana, en la provincia de Nápoles, al sur de Italia, que se extendía por las laderas del volcán Vesubio, ubicado a 9 kilómetros de la ciudad, la cual quedó enterrada bajo 6 metros de cenizas y piedra pómez por una erupción de dicho volcán en el siglo VIII después de Cristo. Buena parte de sus habitantes murieron a causa del flujo piroclástico de la erupción, se calcula que su población era de 30 mil personas, aunque sólo se han encontrado unos dos mil cadáveres. Aún mantengo en mi memoria vivamente los rostros de las personas que murieron calcinadas allí, gracias a las excavaciones que se han realizado desde el siglo XVIII, trabajo que permitió sacar a flote buena parte de la ciudad, se dice que un 60%, en magnífico estado de conservación.


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Wall where there was a fresco, destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius (Pared donde había un fresco, destruido por la erupción del Vesubio). Photo by Wilfredo Urbina

     Conjuntamente con Herculano, también arrasada por el Vesubio, Pompeya pertenece a la región de Campania; la ciudad tenía una distribución irregular, con calles rectas que forman lo que se denomina una rejilla con un cardo, calle de orientación norte-sur y dos decumanos con orientación este-oeste, pavimentadas, con una pendiente de manera que circulara el agua cuando llovía y con aceras para la circulación de los peatones.


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The Centaur sculpture by the Polish Igor Mitoraj (El Centauro escultura del polaco Igor Mitoraj). Photo by Wilfredo Urbina

     Según los arqueólogos e historiadores, que la han estudiado profusamente, la ciudad tenía edificios tal como el Foro, que se encuentra justo frente a la entrada principal del recinto, el cual era un centro cívico y de comercio, en forma rectangular de unos 145 metros de longitud por 38 de ancho, en uno de sus lados, se encontraba el Templo de Júpiter, y estaba rodeada de estatuas, su pavimentación era de piedra. Contaba con el Macellum, un mercado con una fuente de agua en el centro. Se afirma que se construyó en la época del Imperio Romano, En la actualidad se puede apreciar tal y como estaba cuando ocurrió la erupción del Vesubio. Por otra parte, se encuentran restos de la Basílica, sede del equivalente al poder judicial, donde se impartía justicia, era un edificio con cinco puertas que daban hacia el Foro. Frente a la ella se encontraba el Templo de Apolo.


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The fountain with a bust of Concordia Augusta, on the Via de la Abundancia (La fuente con un busto de la Concordia Augusta, en la Vía de la Abundancia). Photo by Wilfredo Urbina

     La ciudad erigía templos a sus dioses, tales como los nombrados Júpiter y Apolo, además de los templos en honor a Isis y Venus, entre otros. Hay varias versiones de cuándo y cómo se descubrieron los restos de la ciudad: una versión afirma que fue descubierta en el siglo XVI casi por casualidad cuando se disponían a construir un acueducto en el lugar; por otra parte, se dice que fue descubierta en 1738 por un granjero que encontró uno de las edificaciones saliendo de la tierra; otra versión estipula que la ciudad fue encontrada en 1756 gracias a unos manuscritos que indicaban su ubicación.


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Bronze statue representing a faun, located in the impluvium, gives the name to the house where it is located (Estatua de bronce que representa a un fauno, ubicada en el impluvium, le da el nombre a la casa donde está ubicada). Photo by Wilfredo Urbina

     Hoy en día, e Vesubio es un volcán activo y se encuentra rodeado por más de 3 millones de personas, quienes viven en constante peligro, pues de ocurrir una erupción, de las mismas características que las que destruyó a Pompeya y Herculano, habría que lamentar la muerte de muchas más personas.


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Inner courtyard of a house with Roman columns (Patio interior de una casa con columnas romanas). Phoyo by Wilfredo Urbina

     Artículos consultados:
Pompeya: http://www.tarraconensis.com/pompei_romano/pompei_romana.html
La arquitectura de Pompeya: https://durmi.com/la-arquitectura-de-pompeya/


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Remains of a fresco on a wall of a Pompeii house (Restos de un fresco en una pared de una casa de Pompeya). Photo by Wilfredo Urbina


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Street leading to the Forum (Calle que conduce hacia el Foro). Photo by Wilfredo Urbina


Photo gallery (Galería de fotos)

The purpose of this photo gallery is to complement the photos captured by friend Wilfredo Urbina with shots, taken from the internet, of those places that we have mentioned in the post (El propósito de esta galería de fotos es complementar las fotos capturadas por el amigo Wilfredo Urbina con tomas, sacadas de internet, de aquellos lugares que hemos mencionado en el post).


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The ruins of Herculaneum, a city destroyed jointly with Pompeii Las ruinas de Herculano, ciudad destruida conjuntamente con Pompeya [Image] (https://www.actualidadviajes.com/visitar-las-ruinas-herculano/)


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The Forum was the center of the commercial and social life of Pompeii, therefore the most crowded public space, it was surrounded by the main temples and baths of the city (El Foro era el centro de la vida comercial y social de Pompeya, por tanto el espacio público más concurrido, estaba rodeado de los principales templos y baños de la ciudad)Image


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Ruins of the Temple of Jupiter, built in front of the Forum (Ruinas del Templo de Júpiter, construido frente al Foro) Image


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(The Macellum was a public building intended for the city's supply market El Macellum era un edificio público destinado al mercado de abastecimiento de la ciudad) Image


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The Basilica of Pompeii was the platform where the judges sat. The building was used to administer justice and for economic negotiations. (La Basílica de Pompeya era el estrado donde se sentaban los jueces, El edificio se empleaba para administrar justicia y para las negociaciones económicas) Image


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Temple of Apollo dedicated to the God of the sun, is located near the forum (Templo de Apolo dedicado al Dios del sol, se encuentra ubicado cerca del foro) Image


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The temple of Isis, before its restoration (El templo de Isis, antes de su restauración) Image


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The Temple of Venus in Pompeii, currently under restoration (El Templo de Venus en Pompeya, en la actualidad en restauración) Image


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Molds of the victims who died, according to the latest research, instantly burned by the tragic eruption of Vesuvius (Moldes de las víctimas que murieron, según las últimas investigaciones, abrasados al instante por la trágica erupción del Vesubio) Image

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I saw a TV documentary about the Pompeii a few years ago and found it really fascinating how a city could be buried and be discovered after all these years

Hello livinguktaiwan, indeed it is incredible that after so many years this city has been discovered. Ggoing there is quite a historical adventure and it shudders to see that humanity does not learn and continues to build under that dormant but not dead volcano. A fraternal greeting

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Gracias amigos de Pinmapple.

Hiya, @LivingUKTaiwan here, just swinging by to let you know that this post made it into our Honorable Mentions in Daily Travel Digest #1443.

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Hi Pinmapple friends, thank you so much for manually curated my post by the @pinmapple team and putting it into your Honorable Mentions in Daily Travel Digest #1443. Receive a fraternal greeting

Siempre me ha llamado la historia de este lugar. Una profesora de Literatura durante la secundaria nos contaba mucho sobre este triste episodio de la historia, desde entonces Pompeya es un lugar que he caminado continuamente.

Hola audiarmisg, buenos días desde Caracas. La historia de Pompeya y Herculano son un ejemplo de cuan devastadora puede ser la naturaleza cuando se le desafía. Allí han quedado petrificado los cuerpos y sus edificaciones como testigos inolvidables de lo que nos puede ocurrir en cualquier momento sin que podamos hacer nada para evitarlo, debido también a nuestra necedad de no aprender de la historia. Reciba mis saludos cordiales

Reply to your comment "The history of this place has always called me. A Literature teacher during high school told us a lot about this sad episode in history, since then Pompeii is a place I have walked continuously".

Hello audiarmisg, good morning from Caracas. The stories of Pompeii and Herculaneum are an example of how devastating nature can be when challenged. There the bodies and their buildings have been petrified as unforgettable witnesses of what can happen to us at any time without our being able to do anything to avoid it, also due to our foolishness in not learning from history. Receive my best regards

I think this is one of the places in Europe you really have to see to at least attempt to understand the true power nature can have over us and impact our daily lives if something likes this happens again. Thanks for sharing 😀

Hello timoremoti, thank you for your comment, which I fully agree with. Hopefully nothing similar happens again in that same place or in other similar ones around the planet, because if it were to happen it would be fateful. Receive my regards.