Hey it's a me again @drifter1!
Today we continue with Physics, and more specifically the branch of "Classical Mechanics" in order to talk about Simple Harmonic Motion Equations.
So, without further ado, let's get straight into it!
In the previous part we approached SHM from the context of energy and showed that the total energy is basically a sum of potential energy and kinetic energy:
Solving this equation for velocity it's easy to end up with:
For x = 0, where the kinetic energy is maximum, we end up with an equation for the maximum velocity:
That was the easy part. Let's now try to come up with an equation that describes the displacement / position of the oscillator. Of course we have to aim for an equation that gives the displacement in relation to time. That way, we can then easily calculate the velocity and acceleration by simply taking the derivative.
Starting off from the velocity equation, let's replace v with dx/dt, and move everything related to x to one side, and everything related to t to the other side, so that integration is possible. This is known as the variable separation method.
Taking the integral now, yields:
where φ is known as the phase angle, and basically shows at which position the oscillation begins (t = 0).
Because cos(-a) = cos(a), we can finally end up with the displacement equation:
Therefore, the position in any SHM is a sinusodial function in relation to time.
The angular frequency, ω, is given by:
and thus we can also write displacement as:
Velocity and Acceleration
Taking the derivative of this last equation, it's easy to come up with equations for velocity and acceleration:
Let's get more into the various phase angle values now.
When φ = 0, then x0 = A, which is the maximum positive displacement. When φ = π, x0= -A, which is the maximum negative displacement. For φ = π/2 the oscillator starts at x0 = 0.
In general, knowing the initial velocity and position, we can calculate φ as follows:
This is easy to prove, as it's a simple division of the initial velocity and position equations (set t = 0), which are:
followed by an trigonometric equation application.
More on that next time!
Knowing the initial velocity and position, as well as the angular frequency, it's also possible to calculate the amplitude of the SHM, using:
Keep that in mind, as it might be useful!
Mathematical equations used in this article, where made using quicklatex.
Previous articles of the series
- Velocity and acceleration in a rectlinear motion -> velocity, acceleration and averages of those
- Rectlinear motion with constant acceleration and free falling -> const acceleration motion and free fall
- Rectlinear motion with variable acceleration and velocity relativity -> integrations to calculate pos and velocity, relative velocity
- Rectlinear motion exercises -> examples and tasks in rectlinear motion
- Position, velocity and acceleration vectors in a plane motion -> position, velocity and acceleration in plane motion
- Projectile motion as a plane motion -> missile/bullet motion as a plane motion
- Smooth Circular motion -> smooth circular motion theory
- Plane motion exercises -> examples and tasks in plane motions
Newton's laws and Applications
- Force and Newton's first law -> force, 1st law
- Mass and Newton's second law -> mass, 2nd law
- Newton's 3rd law and mass vs weight -> mass vs weight, 3rd law, friction
- Applying Newton's Laws -> free-body diagram, point equilibrium and 2nd law applications
- Contact forces and friction -> contact force, friction
- Dynamics of Circular motion -> circular motion dynamics, applications
- Object equilibrium and 2nd law application examples -> examples of object equilibrium and 2nd law applications
- Contact force and friction examples -> exercises in force and friction
- Circular dynamic and vertical circle motion examples -> exercises in circular dynamics
- Advanced Newton law examples -> advanced (more difficult) exercises
Work and Energy
- Work and Kinetic Energy -> Definition of Work, Work by a constant and variable Force, Work and Kinetic Energy, Power, Exercises
- Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces -> Conservation of Energy, Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces and Fields, Calculations and Exercises
- Potential and Mechanical Energy -> Gravitational and Elastic Potential Energy, Conservation of Mechanical Energy, Problem Solving Strategy & Tips
- Force and Potential Energy -> Force as Energy Derivative (1-dim) and Gradient (3-dim)
- Potential Energy Diagrams -> Energy Diagram Interpretation, Steps and Example
- Internal Energy and Work -> Internal Energy, Internal Work
Momentum and Impulse
- Conservation of Momentum -> Momentum, Conservation of Momentum
- Elastic and Inelastic Collisions -> Collision, Elastic Collision, Inelastic Collision
- Collision Examples -> Various Elastic and Inelastic Collision Examples
- Impulse -> Impulse with Example
- Motion of the Center of Mass -> Center of Mass, Motion analysis with examples
- Explaining the Physics behind Rocket Propulsion -> Required Background, Rocket Propulsion Analysis
- Angular motion basics -> Angular position, velocity and acceleration
- Rotation with constant angular acceleration -> Constant angular acceleration, Example
- Rotational Kinetic Energy & Moment of Inertia -> Rotational kinetic energy, Moment of Inertia
- Parallel Axis Theorem -> Parallel axis theorem with example
- Torque and Angular Acceleration -> Torque, Relation to Angular Acceleration, Example
- Rotation about a moving axis (Rolling motion) -> Fixed and moving axis rotation
- Work and Power in Angular Motion -> Work, Work-Energy Theorem, Power
- Angular Momentum -> Angular Momentum and its conservation
- Explaining the Physics behind Mechanical Gyroscopes -> What they are, History, How they work (Precession, Mathematical Analysis) Difference to Accelerometers
- Exercises around Angular motion -> Angular motion examples
Equilibrium and Elasticity
- Rigid Body Equilibrium -> Equilibrium Conditions of Rigid Bodies, Center of Gravity, Solving Equilibrium Problems
- Force Couple System -> Force Couple System, Example
- Tensile Stress and Strain -> Tensile Stress, Tensile Strain, Young's Modulus, Poisson's Ratio
- Volumetric Stress and Strain -> Volumetric Stress, Volumetric Strain, Bulk's Modulus of Elasticity, Compressibility
- Cross-Sectional Stress and Strain -> Shear Stress, Shear Strain, Shear Modulus
- Elasticity and Plasticity of Common Materials -> Elasticity, Plasticity, Stress-Strain Diagram, Fracture, Common Materials
- Rigid Body Equilibrium Exercises -> Center of Gravity Calculation, Equilibrium Problems
- Exercises on Elasticity and Plasticity -> Young Modulus, Bulk Modulus and Shear Modulus Examples
- Newton's Law of Gravitation -> Newton's Law of Gravity, Gravitational Constant G
- Weight: The Force of Gravity -> Weight, Gravitational Acceleration, Gravity on Earth and Planets of the Solar System
- Gravitational Fields -> Gravitational Field Mathematics and Visualization
- Gravitational Potential Energy -> Gravitational Potential Energy, Potential and Escape Velocity
- Exercises around Newtonian Gravity (part 1) -> Examples on the Universal Law of Gravitation
- Exercises around Newtonian Gravity (part2) -> Examples on Gravitational Fields and Potential Energy
- Explaining the Physics behind Satellite Motion -> The Circular Motion of Satellites
- Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion -> Kepler's Story, Elliptical Orbits, Kepler's Laws
- Spherical Mass Distributions -> Spherical Mass Distribution, Gravity Outside and Within a Spherical Shell, Simple Examples
- Earth's Rotation and its Effect on Gravity -> Gravity on Earth, Apparent Weight
- Black Holes and Schwarzschild Radius -> Black Holes (Creation, Types, How To "See" Them), Schwarzschild Radius
- Periodic Motion Fundamentals -> Fundamentals (Period, Frequency, Angular Frequency, Return Force, Acceleration, Velocity, Amplitude), Simple Harmonic Motion, Example
- Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion -> Forms of Energy in SHM (Potential, Kinetic, Total and Maximum Energy, Maximum Velocity), Simple Example
Final words | Next up
And this is actually it for today's post!
Next time we will cover the Reference Circle, which is a nice way of understanding Simple Harmonic Motion...
Keep on drifting!
Posted with STEMGeeks