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## Introduction

Hey it's a me again @drifter1!

Today we continue with **Physics**, and more specifically the branch of "**Classical Mechanics**" in order to get into **Physical Pendulums**.

So, without further ado, let's get straight into it!

## Physical Pendulum

The simple pendulum that was discussed last time is an idealized model of a pendulum, where all the mass is concentrated in a single point (point mass) and the string is weight-less.

To get closer to "real" pendulums, let's now consider a rigid body that rotates about a central point without friction. When in the equilibrium position, the center of mass (or gravity - mostly they are the same) is exactly below the rotation point (an angle of *0°*). When not at rest, we can use the angle *θ* in order to specify the angular position / displacement of the system, as shown below.

### Return Torque

Newton's laws of motion that were used last time are no longer sufficient, as angular momentum is introduced. Basically, the return force is still the force of gravity, but the torque of the corresponding gravity component has to be used instead. The return torque is given by:

The negative sign signifies that the torque "opposes" the angular displacement.

### Small Angle Approximations

Similar to the simple pendulum model, the physical pendulum is not a form of simple harmonic motion as well, because the motion is proportional to *sinθ* and not *θ*. But, for small angles we can approximate *sinθ* with *θ*, which yields:

Therefore, the motion equation is:

where *I* is the the moment of inertia and *a* the angular acceleration (that gets replaced by the corresponding angular displacement derivative).

Solving for the angular acceleration (*a*), yields:

and thus comparing with the corresponding equation from the fundamentals post:

we can discover that *mgL / I* plays a similar role to *k / m*, which gives us the following equations:

The angular displacement equation is also the same:

### Estimating the Moment of Inertia

The physical pendulum model can be used in order to approximate the moment of inertia, by solving for *I* in the period equation:

## RESOURCES:

### References

- https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-osuniversityphysics/chapter/15-4-pendulums/
- http://webhome.phy.duke.edu/~rgb/Class/phy51/phy51/node23.html
- http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pendp.html

### Images

Mathematical equations used in this article, where made using quicklatex.

Visualizations were made using draw.io.

## Previous articles of the series

### Rectlinear motion

- Velocity and acceleration in a rectlinear motion -> velocity, acceleration and averages of those
- Rectlinear motion with constant acceleration and free falling -> const acceleration motion and free fall
- Rectlinear motion with variable acceleration and velocity relativity -> integrations to calculate pos and velocity, relative velocity
- Rectlinear motion exercises -> examples and tasks in rectlinear motion

### Plane motion

- Position, velocity and acceleration vectors in a plane motion -> position, velocity and acceleration in plane motion
- Projectile motion as a plane motion -> missile/bullet motion as a plane motion
- Smooth Circular motion -> smooth circular motion theory
- Plane motion exercises -> examples and tasks in plane motions

### Newton's laws and Applications

- Force and Newton's first law -> force, 1st law
- Mass and Newton's second law -> mass, 2nd law
- Newton's 3rd law and mass vs weight -> mass vs weight, 3rd law, friction
- Applying Newton's Laws -> free-body diagram, point equilibrium and 2nd law applications
- Contact forces and friction -> contact force, friction
- Dynamics of Circular motion -> circular motion dynamics, applications
- Object equilibrium and 2nd law application examples -> examples of object equilibrium and 2nd law applications
- Contact force and friction examples -> exercises in force and friction
- Circular dynamic and vertical circle motion examples -> exercises in circular dynamics
- Advanced Newton law examples -> advanced (more difficult) exercises

### Work and Energy

- Work and Kinetic Energy -> Definition of Work, Work by a constant and variable Force, Work and Kinetic Energy, Power, Exercises
- Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces -> Conservation of Energy, Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces and Fields, Calculations and Exercises
- Potential and Mechanical Energy -> Gravitational and Elastic Potential Energy, Conservation of Mechanical Energy, Problem Solving Strategy & Tips
- Force and Potential Energy -> Force as Energy Derivative (1-dim) and Gradient (3-dim)
- Potential Energy Diagrams -> Energy Diagram Interpretation, Steps and Example
- Internal Energy and Work -> Internal Energy, Internal Work

### Momentum and Impulse

- Conservation of Momentum -> Momentum, Conservation of Momentum
- Elastic and Inelastic Collisions -> Collision, Elastic Collision, Inelastic Collision
- Collision Examples -> Various Elastic and Inelastic Collision Examples
- Impulse -> Impulse with Example
- Motion of the Center of Mass -> Center of Mass, Motion analysis with examples
- Explaining the Physics behind Rocket Propulsion -> Required Background, Rocket Propulsion Analysis

### Angular Motion

- Angular motion basics -> Angular position, velocity and acceleration
- Rotation with constant angular acceleration -> Constant angular acceleration, Example
- Rotational Kinetic Energy & Moment of Inertia -> Rotational kinetic energy, Moment of Inertia
- Parallel Axis Theorem -> Parallel axis theorem with example
- Torque and Angular Acceleration -> Torque, Relation to Angular Acceleration, Example
- Rotation about a moving axis (Rolling motion) -> Fixed and moving axis rotation
- Work and Power in Angular Motion -> Work, Work-Energy Theorem, Power
- Angular Momentum -> Angular Momentum and its conservation
- Explaining the Physics behind Mechanical Gyroscopes -> What they are, History, How they work (Precession, Mathematical Analysis) Difference to Accelerometers
- Exercises around Angular motion -> Angular motion examples

### Equilibrium and Elasticity

- Rigid Body Equilibrium -> Equilibrium Conditions of Rigid Bodies, Center of Gravity, Solving Equilibrium Problems
- Force Couple System -> Force Couple System, Example
- Tensile Stress and Strain -> Tensile Stress, Tensile Strain, Young's Modulus, Poisson's Ratio
- Volumetric Stress and Strain -> Volumetric Stress, Volumetric Strain, Bulk's Modulus of Elasticity, Compressibility
- Cross-Sectional Stress and Strain -> Shear Stress, Shear Strain, Shear Modulus
- Elasticity and Plasticity of Common Materials -> Elasticity, Plasticity, Stress-Strain Diagram, Fracture, Common Materials
- Rigid Body Equilibrium Exercises -> Center of Gravity Calculation, Equilibrium Problems
- Exercises on Elasticity and Plasticity -> Young Modulus, Bulk Modulus and Shear Modulus Examples

### Gravity

- Newton's Law of Gravitation -> Newton's Law of Gravity, Gravitational Constant G
- Weight: The Force of Gravity -> Weight, Gravitational Acceleration, Gravity on Earth and Planets of the Solar System
- Gravitational Fields -> Gravitational Field Mathematics and Visualization
- Gravitational Potential Energy -> Gravitational Potential Energy, Potential and Escape Velocity
- Exercises around Newtonian Gravity (part 1) -> Examples on the Universal Law of Gravitation
- Exercises around Newtonian Gravity (part2) -> Examples on Gravitational Fields and Potential Energy
- Explaining the Physics behind Satellite Motion -> The Circular Motion of Satellites
- Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion -> Kepler's Story, Elliptical Orbits, Kepler's Laws
- Spherical Mass Distributions -> Spherical Mass Distribution, Gravity Outside and Within a Spherical Shell, Simple Examples
- Earth's Rotation and its Effect on Gravity -> Gravity on Earth, Apparent Weight
- Black Holes and Schwarzschild Radius -> Black Holes (Creation, Types, How To "See" Them), Schwarzschild Radius

### Periodic Motion

- Periodic Motion Fundamentals -> Fundamentals (Period, Frequency, Angular Frequency, Return Force, Acceleration, Velocity, Amplitude), Simple Harmonic Motion, Example
- Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion -> Forms of Energy in SHM (Potential, Kinetic, Total and Maximum Energy, Maximum Velocity), Simple Example
- Simple Harmonic Motion Equations -> SHM Equations (Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration, Phase Angle, Amplitude)
- Simple Harmonic Motion and Reference Circle -> SHM and Smooth Circular Motion, Reference Circle
- Simple Harmonic Motion Exercises -> 2 Complete Examples on Simple Harmonic Motion
- Simple Pendulum -> Simple Pendulum (Return Force, Small Angle Approximations, More Accurate Period, Gravity Approximation)

## Final words | Next up

And this is actually it for today's post!

Next time we will get into exercises around Pendulums!

See ya!

Keep on drifting!

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