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## Introduction

Hey it's a me again @drifter1!

Today we continue with **Physics**, and more specifically the branch of "**Classical Mechanics**" in order to get into **Chaos and Chaotic Oscillation**.

So, without further ado, let's get straight into it!

## Chaos and Unpredictability

Up to this point, we basically considered that any behavior in a system is predictable. But, the sad truth is that even the best physical laws can in-practice be invalid. There will always be some kind of randomness and unpredictability in a system, which can't be ignored. Such a behavior is commonly referred to as chaotic behavior or simply chaos.

Of course, we came a long way with science, and the initial perception that everything is unpredictable, mainly because it is complicated, has faded away over the centuries. But, the world is not completely deterministic, and that's where Newton's Classical Mechanics start to lose their power.

Systems that include chaos are considered non-linear, and therefore described by non-linear models. For example, fluids are a great example of such a system. And, let's not forget to mention any kind of Quantum Physics, where most properties are unpredictable basically "by definition".

## Chaotic Oscillation

Chaos in a system doesn't always have to be completely unpredictable and random. A system can show a periodic oscillatory time dependence. The behavior can thus at some points in time or transitions between the various states be periodically predictable.

Other behavior that isn't time-dependent and thus "more" random can only be described and analyzed statistically. These instabilities in a system are known as noise. If these are small fluctuations, they can be safely left out when studying macroscopic motions, as the error is small.

## RESOURCES:

### References

- https://www.britannica.com/science/chaos-theory
- https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chaos/
- https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/jpa-00216434/document

### Images

Mathematical equations used in this article, where made using quicklatex.

Visualizations were made using draw.io.

## Previous articles of the series

### Rectlinear motion

- Velocity and acceleration in a rectlinear motion -> velocity, acceleration and averages of those
- Rectlinear motion with constant acceleration and free falling -> const acceleration motion and free fall
- Rectlinear motion with variable acceleration and velocity relativity -> integrations to calculate pos and velocity, relative velocity
- Rectlinear motion exercises -> examples and tasks in rectlinear motion

### Plane motion

- Position, velocity and acceleration vectors in a plane motion -> position, velocity and acceleration in plane motion
- Projectile motion as a plane motion -> missile/bullet motion as a plane motion
- Smooth Circular motion -> smooth circular motion theory
- Plane motion exercises -> examples and tasks in plane motions

### Newton's laws and Applications

- Force and Newton's first law -> force, 1st law
- Mass and Newton's second law -> mass, 2nd law
- Newton's 3rd law and mass vs weight -> mass vs weight, 3rd law, friction
- Applying Newton's Laws -> free-body diagram, point equilibrium and 2nd law applications
- Contact forces and friction -> contact force, friction
- Dynamics of Circular motion -> circular motion dynamics, applications
- Object equilibrium and 2nd law application examples -> examples of object equilibrium and 2nd law applications
- Contact force and friction examples -> exercises in force and friction
- Circular dynamic and vertical circle motion examples -> exercises in circular dynamics
- Advanced Newton law examples -> advanced (more difficult) exercises

### Work and Energy

- Work and Kinetic Energy -> Definition of Work, Work by a constant and variable Force, Work and Kinetic Energy, Power, Exercises
- Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces -> Conservation of Energy, Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces and Fields, Calculations and Exercises
- Potential and Mechanical Energy -> Gravitational and Elastic Potential Energy, Conservation of Mechanical Energy, Problem Solving Strategy & Tips
- Force and Potential Energy -> Force as Energy Derivative (1-dim) and Gradient (3-dim)
- Potential Energy Diagrams -> Energy Diagram Interpretation, Steps and Example
- Internal Energy and Work -> Internal Energy, Internal Work

### Momentum and Impulse

- Conservation of Momentum -> Momentum, Conservation of Momentum
- Elastic and Inelastic Collisions -> Collision, Elastic Collision, Inelastic Collision
- Collision Examples -> Various Elastic and Inelastic Collision Examples
- Impulse -> Impulse with Example
- Motion of the Center of Mass -> Center of Mass, Motion analysis with examples
- Explaining the Physics behind Rocket Propulsion -> Required Background, Rocket Propulsion Analysis

### Angular Motion

- Angular motion basics -> Angular position, velocity and acceleration
- Rotation with constant angular acceleration -> Constant angular acceleration, Example
- Rotational Kinetic Energy & Moment of Inertia -> Rotational kinetic energy, Moment of Inertia
- Parallel Axis Theorem -> Parallel axis theorem with example
- Torque and Angular Acceleration -> Torque, Relation to Angular Acceleration, Example
- Rotation about a moving axis (Rolling motion) -> Fixed and moving axis rotation
- Work and Power in Angular Motion -> Work, Work-Energy Theorem, Power
- Angular Momentum -> Angular Momentum and its conservation
- Explaining the Physics behind Mechanical Gyroscopes -> What they are, History, How they work (Precession, Mathematical Analysis) Difference to Accelerometers
- Exercises around Angular motion -> Angular motion examples

### Equilibrium and Elasticity

- Rigid Body Equilibrium -> Equilibrium Conditions of Rigid Bodies, Center of Gravity, Solving Equilibrium Problems
- Force Couple System -> Force Couple System, Example
- Tensile Stress and Strain -> Tensile Stress, Tensile Strain, Young's Modulus, Poisson's Ratio
- Volumetric Stress and Strain -> Volumetric Stress, Volumetric Strain, Bulk's Modulus of Elasticity, Compressibility
- Cross-Sectional Stress and Strain -> Shear Stress, Shear Strain, Shear Modulus
- Elasticity and Plasticity of Common Materials -> Elasticity, Plasticity, Stress-Strain Diagram, Fracture, Common Materials
- Rigid Body Equilibrium Exercises -> Center of Gravity Calculation, Equilibrium Problems
- Exercises on Elasticity and Plasticity -> Young Modulus, Bulk Modulus and Shear Modulus Examples

### Gravity

- Newton's Law of Gravitation -> Newton's Law of Gravity, Gravitational Constant G
- Weight: The Force of Gravity -> Weight, Gravitational Acceleration, Gravity on Earth and Planets of the Solar System
- Gravitational Fields -> Gravitational Field Mathematics and Visualization
- Gravitational Potential Energy -> Gravitational Potential Energy, Potential and Escape Velocity
- Exercises around Newtonian Gravity (part 1) -> Examples on the Universal Law of Gravitation
- Exercises around Newtonian Gravity (part2) -> Examples on Gravitational Fields and Potential Energy
- Explaining the Physics behind Satellite Motion -> The Circular Motion of Satellites
- Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion -> Kepler's Story, Elliptical Orbits, Kepler's Laws
- Spherical Mass Distributions -> Spherical Mass Distribution, Gravity Outside and Within a Spherical Shell, Simple Examples
- Earth's Rotation and its Effect on Gravity -> Gravity on Earth, Apparent Weight
- Black Holes and Schwarzschild Radius -> Black Holes (Creation, Types, How To "See" Them), Schwarzschild Radius

### Periodic Motion

- Periodic Motion Fundamentals -> Fundamentals (Period, Frequency, Angular Frequency, Return Force, Acceleration, Velocity, Amplitude), Simple Harmonic Motion, Example
- Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion -> Forms of Energy in SHM (Potential, Kinetic, Total and Maximum Energy, Maximum Velocity), Simple Example
- Simple Harmonic Motion Equations -> SHM Equations (Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration, Phase Angle, Amplitude)
- Simple Harmonic Motion and Reference Circle -> SHM and Smooth Circular Motion, Reference Circle
- Simple Harmonic Motion Exercises -> 2 Complete Examples on Simple Harmonic Motion
- Simple Pendulum -> Simple Pendulum (Return Force, Small Angle Approximations, More Accurate Period, Gravity Approximation)
- Physical Pendulum -> Physical Pendulum (Return Torque, Small Angle Approximations, Estimating Moment of Inertia)
- Exercises around Pendulums -> Complete Examples on the 2 types of Pendulums (Simple, Physical)
- Damped Oscillation -> Damping Force, Total Force and Differential Equation, Motion Equations, Special Cases
- Forced Oscillation and Resonance -> Forced Oscillation (Differential Equation, Amplitude, Resonance)
- Exercises around Damped and Forced Oscillation -> Complete Examples on Damped Oscillation and Forced Oscillation

## Final words | Next up

And this is actually it for today's post!

Now that we've finished Periodic Motion (Oscillation), we can continue with other topics of Mechanics, such as Fluids, Waves, Sound etc.

Not too sure about when that will happen though...

See ya!

Keep on drifting!

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