The theory of Landau, I receive new impulses, when a scientific German Eberhard Hopf, invented mathematical models, to describe the forks, which they were leading to the turbulency. It was describing it as a creek that circulates fluidamente, the diverse parameters that describe the flow that they are constant, and immutable, even if the creek is disturbed throwing a stone, soon it returns to his normal flow, as the variables that define the flow of the creek does not change, the water flows without obstacle it is possible to represent by means of only one point in the space of phase, a point atractor. The point, in this case, represents the constant speed of the water.
Image prepared for @coolxxx.
In this image, in a creek that circulates at major speed, the fluid is distorted by oscillations, where stable whirlpool form, nevertheless, this flow is very regular and it is possible to characterize as a cycle limit, the creek disturbed always returns to the same basic oscillation, the same stable whirlpool, although one throws herself him to disturb it.
Superfluency, after the hydrogen, the helium is the lightest element, so much, that always tends to rise to the top layers of the ambience, which implies that next to the terrestrial surface practically it is nonexistent. The ordinary air only contains about five parts of helium for million parts of air. But if the helium is scarce in the ambience, it it is still more in the earth's crust, which only contains, approximately: eight parts for billion! Also, like the helium forms very few chemical compounds, rarely he is combined by other elements in liquid or solid. And, nevertheless, in spite of being so scarce in the Earth, it abounds in the Universe in which constitutes 23 % of his mass.
But the above mentioned description is almost paradoxical; when the speed of the creek is slow, a point atractor serves to describe the movement, but on having increased the speed we apply an atractor of cycle border, realizing well that has to see a critical point in which the description of the conduct of the creek jumps of an atractor to other. This critical point of instability is called today an instability of Hopf; where this one alludes that the whole scale of new instabilities, the first instability involves a jump of the point atractor to the cycle limit, a sudden transit continues to one form of doughnut in three dimensions.
The physicist David Ruelle, of the scientific institute of high studies of France, with help of Floris Taken, I believe a new Theory, for this emergence of the chaos, call the atractor of the turbulency with the strange name, it is in accordance with Landau and Hopf, in which in the current of convection the flow yields before the first oscillation, in that point atractor jumps to a cycle limit, the system does not jump of a surface toroide three-dimensional in the space tetradimensional, but it begins to decompose.
I explain them to Him of the following form, take us a role and we detail it, as a two-dimensional object, then let's squeeze the role, these when it is compressed, more chaotic it puts itself on the creases and more it approaches the two-dimensional surface the solid three-dimensional one. Skylight that the role really three-dimensional and one of the dimensions is very thin, nevertheless, at least metaphorically, comes closer enough a mathematical plane. I mention or share the following thing; as the scientists analyze the meaning of the above mentioned experiment, it faces more and more irony of the turbulency. The turbulency arises because all the components of a movement are connected between yes, and each of them depends on all the rest, really it is a feedback between them more elements and arguments produce, owed that is a sign of the infinite and deep interconnection of the system of an integral way.
The world of the physics hides many puzzlers and phenomena that defy their own laws, for this this science, to verify for that it happens and that benefit has for the humanity
Transport of Momentum Y Heat. Theory And Applications to the Process engineering
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