Dear readers, the different existing crops such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, among others, are primary products intended for human food that can be consumed fresh, semi-processed or transformed through industrial processes for final consumption, these items represent for humans a great source of energy, vitamins and minerals essential for healthy nutrition and a proper functioning of our organism.
However, although the consumption of these crops is indispensable for the maintenance of the human organism, their management in agroecosystems is based on the use of toxic substances that generate contaminated food that does not allow adequate nutrition of people, on the contrary, they could be the cause of some diseases. That is to say, that the management of crops under the approach of conventional agriculture, has exaggerated in some cases the use of inputs such as synthetic fertilizers. In response to this problem, many countries have begun to develop and implement alternatives under the approach of organic agriculture, which corresponds to a more ecological way of facing the production process.
In the same vein, the excessive use of these synthetic products has been causing damage to agroecosystems, resulting in the deterioration of soils, increasing their salinity that affects the fauna of the soil ecosystem causing the loss of the main microorganisms involved in the decomposition of organic matter. Due to this situation described above, the strategy of using the organic resources locally available within the productive units was born, as an agroecological alternative in order to enhance its effect, giving rise as a resulting activity to the elaboration of organic fertilizers and biostimulators of plant growth and development.
On the other hand, the long-term sustainability of agroecosystems can be achieved by promoting the proper use and management of the internal resources of the ecosystems where the production units are established. In this sense, organic fertilizers are a vital component of sustainable systems, since they constitute an economically attractive and ecologically acceptable means of reducing external inputs. Therefore, it is essential to adopt a nutrient supply strategy to crops, integrating an intelligent combination of organic fertilizer such as compost and biofertilizers, as for example is the case of Azotobacter sp; being of bacterial origin and which helps nitrogen fixation to the soil. That is why the obtaining of nitrogenous biofertilizers are part of a wide variety of agroproductive alternatives to be able to drive, an adequate and economically reasonable management of the different agricultural systems.
That is why the need arises to implement research that focuses on the use of these organic fertilizers of natural origin for the production of any type of crops, emphasizing the different methods of application and their influence on the crop; in order to obtain a high production in the shortest possible time and encourage the general population to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers, which are the main agent of environmental pollution.
Dear readers, as mentioned above, Azotobacter sp is one of the genera known as associative Nitrogen fixers, according to Cerón and Contreras (2015), they are soil-free microorganisms that require organic substances as an energy source, but if there is an abundance of NO3 and NH4, they use it easily and do not fix Nitrogen. The nitrogen fixation capacity of these bacteria varies considerably depending on the acidity, temperature and aeration of the soil. This type of organism collaborates with plant production because it helps to maintain the nitrogen element for the growth of the pantas.
- Cerón, L; Contreras, F. (2014). Effect of Trichoderma harzianum and Azotobacter sp; on the Vegetable Growth of Cucumber (Cucumis sativum). UNESUR.
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