Dear readers, in different publications we have talked about the use of organic fertilizers for soil fertilization to improve its characteristics and that this significantly influences the growth and production of crops to maintain food security in this way, this time we will share some aspects that are of interest in improving some soil properties when incorporated into them, organic fertilizers.
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In this sense, it can be said that organic fertilizers tend to favorably influence the physical properties of the soil, such as structure, aeration, porosity, infiltration and water retention capacity. According to it, Murray, Bojórquez, Hernández, Orozco, García, Gómez, Ontiveros, and Aguirre. (2011), stated that the values of soil organic matter improved the soil structure in the first 20 cm, in the same way they ensure that the contributions of annual vegetation cover can lead to changes in the soil structure by increasing the infiltration rate, total porosity and moisture retention capacity.
In this same order of ideas, regarding the benefits of organic fertilizers on the chemical properties of soil Cajamarca (2012), details the following, they contribute to increasing soil fertility by releasing several essential nutrients for plants among which stand out: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and some minor elements, such as copper (Cu) and boron (B). On the other hand, some researchers point out that it influences an increase in the cation exchange capacity of the soil (C.I.C.), which manifests itself in greater retention and contribution of mineral elements to plants.
It also influences the biological properties of the soil improved by organic fertilizers, since microorganisms are considered to have a great influence on soil properties, in addition to exerting a certain influence on plant growth. Organic fertilizers favor the aeration and oxygenation of the soil, due to the decomposition exerted on the particles of the organic matter provided, due to the effect of the generation and biochemical reactions that occur there, so there is greater activity of aerobic microorganisms. Likewise, according to Mosquera (2010), they produce growth inhibitory and activating substances, they considerably increase the development of beneficial microorganisms, both to degrade the organic matter of the soil and to favor the development of the crop.
To achieve the aforementioned, quality organic fertilizers must be provided, therefore, Ansorena, Batalla and Merino (2014), indicate that the quality of the different fertilizers is usually determined, by different ways:
Firstly, through field experiments, in which the response of plants is measured in real cultivation conditions at different doses or concentrations, evaluating different variables such as biomass production, root growth, leaf number among others. On the other hand, by measuring a set of properties, such as organoleptic properties, including odor, color, particle size and the presence of foreign elements such as plastics, glass, among others, while for physical, chemical and biological properties, pH, nutrients, heavy metals, microbiology, temperature, humidity, among others, can be determined.
Dear readers, in organic agriculture, the needs of the soil are met through the use of organic fertilizers with options of natural origin, such as phosphoric rock, compost, manure tea, biol, worm leachate, mulch among other alternatives that provide great benefits such as those mentioned in this publication. Therefore, synthetic fertilizers can be progressively replaced by products of organic origin that guarantee a multiple benefit in ecosystems.
Murray, R., Bojórquez, J., Hernández, A., Orozco, M., García, J., Gómez, R., Ontiveros, H. and J. Aguirre. (2011). Effect of organic matter on the physical properties of soil in an agroforestry system of the Northern Coastal Plain of Nayarit, Mexico. Revista Bio-Ciencias, 1(3), 27-35.
Cajamarca, D. (2012). Procedures for the preparation of organic fertilizers. (Degree work). University of Cuenca. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Cuenca, Ecuador.
Mosquera, B. (2010). Organic fertilizers. They protect the soil and guarantee healthy food. Manual for the preparation and application of organic fertilizers and pesticides. Retrieved from Fondo para la Protección del Agua (FONAG). United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
Anson, J.. Batalla, E.. E. P. Merino. (2014). Como sustratos de Evaluación de la calidad y del componente uses compost, rich in orgánicos y enmienda season. Laboratory Of Insurgency And Agriculture. Laboratorio Agroambiental.
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