Dear readers, a system consists of several components that are related to each other for a common purpose, in the case of livestock production for example involves human talent, machinery, soil, pastures, fodder, animals and perimeter fences. Biotic and abiotic factors such as temperature, rainfall, solar radiation and relative humidity are involved in agroecosystems, which significantly influence rangeland yield and quality.
In this sense, the pastures have their own characteristics that provide specific adaptation for their growth and quality, however, they experience changes in performance when changes occur in climatic conditions such as temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and precipitation being these determining factors in livestock activity in tropical areas.
According to the mentioned, it should be noted that, temperature is one of the most relevant factors in the growth and development of pastures thus determining the quality of the pasture as , structures cell walls thicken conviritiendose in poorly digestible for cattle also, Genetic factors such as the species and chemical composition of plants determine the efficiency of foliage from a nutritional point of view. Likewise, non-structural carbohydrates such as monosaccharides, disaccharides and oligosaccharides present in the upper part of the plant increase digestibility and palatability according to the phenological stage found in said pasture.
The growth potential of tropical grasslands tends to be more accelerated by the metabolic pathway used to carry out photosynthesis, Known as C4 plants their efficiency lies in that they do not photobreathe and always have carbon dioxide available for the photosynthetic process without risk of taking O2 oxygen. In this sense, it can be said that the productivity of grasslands depends on the conversion efficiency they make of atmospheric CO2, nutrients, soil moisture and solar energy, These factors are highly influential in the production and quality of pastures according to the type of plant that exists in the livestock ecosystem.
Due to the above, it can be evidenced in some tropical livestock ecosystems of the south of the lake of maracaibero problems of low productivity in cattle herds. Among the main causes of this are the low quality of the grasslands and the high level of degradation that these have by carrying out erroneous practices within the integral management of the agro-ecosystem. In turn, man is considered one of the main factors influencing the growth of pastures when they do not know the phenological stages and the cultural or agronomic practices that must be followed for the efficient yield of biomass. In addition, the animal load, rest days and occupation must be taken into account according to the type of grass that is established.
Finally, dear readers, it is evident that the changing climate that is currently experienced by the natural phenomena that exist leads to an integrated management of the livestock system being increasingly demanding efficiency among man-soil-plant-animal, training is necessary for the agricultural producer who often does not know the importance and relevance of producing pastures of high nutritional quality to then obtain a production of meat or milk and/or dual purpose where all resources are used.
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