MUSHROOM AND ITS CULTIVATION
HELLO EVERYONE, In this post I am going to explain the cultivation of mushroom in details
This was part of my industrial training observed last year @FIIRO. I should have posted with pictures but I didn't take pictures when I was doing it. I hope it will help a bit
Mushrooms are fruiting bodies of fleshy fungi. The structure of a mushroom consists of stem (stalk) and flesh (pileus) that contain gills and spores .
The edible fungi are referred to as edible mushrooms while the unpalatable ones are called Toadstools. Mushrooms are very nutritious products that can be generated from lignocellulosic waste materials; and are in rich in crude fibre and protein. . In fact, mushrooms also contain low fat, low calories and good vitamins. In addition, many mushrooms possess multi-functional medicinal properties. Mushroom are sources of protein to human body.
Waste preparation (sawdust + wood shavings + rice bran + dried banana leaves+CaCO3 + water) compost for 2-4wks least Mixed thoroughly (once a week)
Fill into polyethylene bags (stacking)
Pasteurized in drums (for 4 hours after water has boiled)
Inoculation with mushroom spawn
Watering / harvesting of matured fruit
Preparation of substrate is the solid fermentation where the materials are soaked in CaCO3 (lime) solution. The soaking period will depend on the substrate, but it can within 30mins to 1hr. Cotton waste will be soaked for 20mins, excess water is pressed out and then shredded into bits and then dispense into nylon. The scarcity of cotton waste made the use of sawdust as the alternative in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms as it was found to be the best material for cultivation of oysters. The use of cotton waste is also cumbersome, it requires many hands in a situation where the shredding will be done with hands and as a commercial farmer, the quantity to use to cultivate will be enamors. Using sawdust as a cultivating substrate, it has to be supplemented to have a better yield. Supplementing materials include rice bran, wheat bran, palm kernel cake and any agricultural waste that contains protein. Sawdust is prepared in the ratio of 4:1, with other materials like wood shavings, dried banana leaves, groundnut shell etc. 2% CaCO3 is then added to the mixtures and then are mixed together and water is sprinkled on it until it can be mold with hand without breaking. It is then dispense into polyethylene bag depending on the size chosen. Dispensing Sizes of the substrate in polyethylene depend on the discretion of the cultivator. The size also determines the pasteurization period, the bigger the size the longer the pasteurization period.
This is done using the drum that can conserve steam from the boiling water. The timing of the pasteurization starts when the water boils in the drum and assumes it is 1000c. Depending on the size and quantity of substrates in the drum, pasteurization is done at 1000c for 4hrs, if the size is more than 1-2kg.
Pasteurized substrates will be removed from the drum and arrange on a clean table for cooling at room temperature. Do not use fan to cool substrates to avoid the spread of contaminants. Cooling temperature is at ambient.
This is the critical part of the cultivation process, the success of the cultivation largely depend on the inoculation aspect. It is done under aseptic conditions. The spawn for inoculation must also be very good; it must not be older than one month. The work bench is cleaned with 70% ethanol. Hand is cleaned also with ethanol; flame is lit to flame inoculating materials. The quantity of spawn to be inoculated on the substrates also depends on the size of the substrates. For a substrate of 1kg spawn of 10g can be inoculated on it. Overall, the 5% of the substrate weight is the quantity of spawn to be inoculated.
This stage is done in darkness and substrates cover with old newspapers thishelps in keeping carbon dioxide concentration high (15-20%) in the room to promote mycelia running.The mycelia are found to colonize the substrate and change the colour from that of the substrates to white. Any colour apart from white is contaminants and the substrateswith contaminants should be discarded to avoid spreading of contamination.Incubation days depend on the size of the substrates, the larger the substrate the longer the ramification days. A substrate of 2kg with 5% inoculum will complete ramification within 2wks.
The environmental conditions for growing edible mushroom includes: Adequate temperature, Humidity, Optimum light intensity, carbon-dioxide, and acidity of substrate (relative). All these are provided to initiate fruiting. Watering of the substrates is done to keep them wet and increase the humidity of the fruiting environment. The flushing phase of the substrates depend on the available nutrients on the substrates, if there are enough nutrients the flushing phase will be shorter. A very good substrate can produce four flushes before it is assumed a spent mushroom substrate (SMS).
This depends on the choice of cultivator, except that mushroom is a perishable crop that gets rotten within seven days of harvest if not properly stored. It can however be dried and packaged in paper cartoon or Nylon. Refrigerated mushroom has a life span of 5-7 days in a temperature of 160c. Canning is another way of storing by keeping mushroom in brine solution and the can sealed.
Thanks for reading the post