Hablemos sobre las granjas integrales / Let's talk about integrals farms. Esp-Eng

in Agricultural Mindset5 months ago (edited)
Estimados lectores, la actividad agropecuaria se puede desarrollar a pequeña, mediana y gran escala, haciendo referencia a la superficie de tierra que tengan disponibles los productores para establecer los cultivos, en el pasado se creía que poseer pequeñas extensiones de tierra era una limitante para la diversificación de cultivos, pero surgió lo que hoy conocemos como granjas integrales, como su nombre lo indica son sistemas agropecuarios que integran todos los rubros necesarios de una manera organizada para satisfacer las necesidades sociales y económicas de la familia utilizando estrategias que sean sostenibles y amigables con el medio ambiente.
Dear readers, agricultural activity can be developed on a small, medium and large scale, depending on the amount of land available to producers to establish crops. In the past it was believed that having small extensions of land was a limitation for crop diversification, but what we know today as integrated farms emerged, as their name indicates, are agricultural systems that integrate all the necessary items in an organized manner to meet the social and economic needs of the family using strategies that are sustainable and environmentally friendly.

Diversificación de cultivos
Crop diversification

Diseño de AGROTECNIA elaborado por @amestyj con imagen de su propiedad.
AGROTECNIA design by @amestyj with his own image.

Las granjas integrales pueden llegar a tener una superficie de 4 hectáreas, las cuales pueden se manejadas de manera eficiente por cualquier productor sin necesidad de invertir grandes cantidades de dinero en recursos externos, ya que, generalmente en este tipo de modelo productivo se busca generar alternativas sostenibles que permitan aminorar costos y aprovechar los elementos que se encuentran integrados en el ecosistema como por ejemplo el estiércol de los animales, los desechos o residuos vegetales después de las cosechas entre otras alternativas.
Integrated farms can have an area of up to 4 hectares, which can be efficiently managed by any producer without the need to invest large amounts of money in external resources, since this type of production model generally seeks to generate sustainable alternatives to reduce costs and take advantage of the elements that are integrated into the ecosystem, such as animal manure, waste or plant residues after harvesting, among other alternatives.

Como técnicos de campo hemos evidenciado como algunas unidades de producción agropecuarias con pequeñas extensiones de tierras tienen una mejor productividad que otras con mayor superficie, ya que, todo se basa en la relación costo-beneficio y no solo en la cantidad del rubro que se genera, el uso exclusivo de plaguicidas tiende a incrementar los costos, por ende la inclusión de alternativas endógenas y orgánicas generadas en la misma unidad de producción tiende a disminuir los costos y ser más eficientes en todos los sentidos desde lo económico hasta lo ambiental.
As field technicians we have seen how some agricultural production units with small extensions of land have a better productivity than others with larger areas, since everything is based on the cost-benefit ratio and not only on the amount of the item generated, the exclusive use of pesticides tends to increase costs, therefore the inclusion of endogenous and organic alternatives generated in the same production unit tends to reduce costs and be more efficient in all senses from the economic to the environmental.

En ese sentido, dentro de los rubros que se pueden establecer en las granjas integrales se pueden mencionar los siguientes:
In this sense, among the items that can be established in integral farms, the following can be mentioned:

- Producción vegetal y animal: se debe realizar una distribución equitativa del espacio donde se desea sembrar, dentro los cultivos vegetales se debe sembrar pastos que serán destinados para la alimentación animal, dicho espacio debe ser bien delimitado y dividido además se debe ajustar la carga animal y no exceder en el número de animales. También dependiendo de la zona climática se puede sembrar cultivo de hortalizas y frutales, por ejemplo, en zonas tropicales se puede sembrar hortalizas como tomate, pimentón, ají entre otros y frutales como parchita, lechosa, guayaba entre otros.
- Vegetable and animal production: an equitable distribution of the space where it is desired to plant must be made, within the vegetable crops should be planted pastures that will be used for animal feed, this space must be well delimited and divided and the animal load must be adjusted and not exceed the number of animals. Also, depending on the climatic zone, vegetables and fruit crops can be planted, for example, in tropical zones, vegetables such as tomato, paprika, chili bell pepper, among others, and fruit trees such as parchita, milk tomatoes, guava, among others, can be planted.

Siembra de hortalizas
Vegetable planting

Diseño de AGROTECNIA elaborado por @amestyj con imagen de su propiedad.
AGROTECNIA design by @amestyj with his own image.


También, se pueden introducir especies menores como gallinas ponedoras, cerdos, cabras, además pequeñas lagunas para introducir peces como las cachamas y apiarios para la obtención de miel y con ello estamos introduciendo una especie como las abejas que ayudaran al proceso de polinización de los cultivos. Otras especies vegetales de importancia serían las leguminosas como los frijoles que ayudan al aporte de proteína para la familia además de aportar nitrógeno a los suelos.
Also, we can introduce minor species such as laying hens, pigs, goats, as well as small ponds to introduce fish such as cachamas and apiaries to obtain honey and with this we are introducing a species such as bees that will help the pollination process of crops. Other important plant species would be leguminous plants such as beans that help provide protein for the family as well as providing nitrogen to the soil.

Cría de cerdos
Pig breeding

Diseño de AGROTECNIA elaborado por @amestyj con imagen de su propiedad.
AGROTECNIA design by @amestyj with his own image.


- Producción de fertilizantes orgánicos: se puede destinar un área para el almacenamiento del estiércol bovino entre otros recursos orgánicos provenientes de la misma granja para elaborar compost, té estiércol, entre otros. También se puede establecer lombricarios para la introducción de lombrices californianas que permitan la descomposición de material orgánico y obtener un lombricompuesto rico en nutrientes y microorganismos.
- Production of organic fertilizers: an area can be set aside for the storage of cattle manure and other organic resources from the same farm to produce compost, manure tea, etc. Worm farms can also be established for the introduction of Californian worms to decompose organic material and obtain a worm compost rich in nutrients and microorganisms.

Lombricultura
Vermiculture

Diseño de AGROTECNIA elaborado por @amestyj con imagen de su propiedad.
AGROTECNIA design by @amestyj with his own image.


Estimados lectores, el objetivo principal de las granjas integrales es lograr la sostenibilidad de las familias y dependiendo de la eficiencia productiva que se logre, poder comercializar el excedente como los huevos, leche de vaca o cabra, la miel, frutas y hortalizas y aunado a ello se puede vender el abono orgánico, generando así una entrada económica proveniente de la diversificación de la granja. Dentro de los principios de las granjas integrales se encuentran la sostenibilidad, la diversificación de la producción, el autoabastecimiento, preservación del ambiente, aumentos de los rendimientos, mejores ingresos e integración de la familia.
Dear readers, the main objective of the integral farms is to achieve the sustainability of the families and depending on the productive efficiency achieved, to be able to commercialize the surplus such as eggs, cow or goat milk, honey, fruits and vegetables, and in addition to this, organic fertilizer can be sold, thus generating an economic income from the diversification of the farm. The principles of integral farms include sustainability, diversification of production, self-sufficiency, preservation of the environment, increased yields, better income and family integration.

Hasta luego, gracias por quedarse con nosotros hasta el final.
See you later, thank you for staying with us until the end.

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Como me encantaría tener unas tierras para dedicarme a ellas, siempre he pensado en lo grandioso que seria, quizás en algunos años logre comprar un pequeño espacio y empezar a cultivar mi propia comida, por ahora estoy haciendo unos pequeños huertos en casa, grandioso post, saludos.

Hi @doudoer, thank you for your valuable comment, without any doubt having land although it generates a lot of work, it also generates good income and allows you to have the self-supply for the family when it is managed properly.

See you later, have a great week.

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Thanks for this interesting post. It triggered in me a few questions.

I am wondering, how many people can be supported with such a farm built on 4 hectares? How large are such farms in general? Thanks in advance for your clarifications!

Cheers, and have a nice end of the week!

Hello dear friend @lemouth, the farms of 4 hectares have a moderate space for the management of animals, you could use two hectares and manage a very small herd of animals, the rest of the two hectares can be used to establish a house and crops of vegetables, cassava, bananas, a space for laying hens, pigs and others as mentioned in the article.

I particularly think that a well diversified farm of 4 hectares can support a family of 8 to 10 people and even more, as long as it is properly managed.

For example, the hens lay eggs every day, the milk from the cows can be used to produce products such as cheese, curd, butter and meat. With a well synchronized management you can support the family and even market the surplus.

The ideal is to implement management that does not generate high costs. See you later, have a great week.

Mmmh I see. 4 hectares for 8-10 people is a really good deal. The main problem to apply this in Europe is probably to find properties that big for a reasonable price. It is quite crowded around here... ;)

I know friends who try to become sustainable by developing a mini-farm (built from scratch). It is not easy for them and I am impressed how strong they are dedicated to their project. I am sure they will eventually manage to have something great!

Greetings dear @lemouth, I imagine that in Europe the land must be a little expensive as here in Venezuela, here in Venezuela in the area where I am a herctarea of land planted with grass, has an approximate price between 3500 and 4500 dollars.

On the other hand, farming tends to be complex, but when you work with dedication and discipline you achieve your goals, I am sure that your friends will achieve excellent results.

See you later brother, have a great week.

Yep, here the price is what kills most to buy/build their first property, especially with a constraint of being not too far from the big cities...

From the numbers you quote, in the French country side (moderately far from cities), you may need to multiply them by about 100.

Cheers!

PS: very busy week here ;)

Greetings, have a successful week.

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