Dear readers, worldwide there are large areas of land that are mostly covered by a wide variety of animal and plant species, characterized by being spaces that give life to what we call natural ecosystems. In these ecosystems each component (animal, plant) has a fundamental role to maintain the physical environment through the known natural processes, achieving a balance that allows any organism can establish develop and reproduce.
With the development of agriculture, the human being as an essential biotic component on the planet began to transform different natural ecosystems located in different geographical areas into spaces for food production, initially with the application of techniques or strategies that did not significantly alter the components of the system, but over time began to develop alternatives that, Although they help improve crop yields in the short term, in the medium and long term, some components are degraded and become unsustainable.
There are different ways in which agricultural activity can interfere with the natural components of the ecosystem, which can be with the production of plant resources or the production of resources from animals, which must be managed efficiently to avoid the destruction and degradation of soils due to the loss of biodiversity, because it is no secret that microorganisms are essential in the fertility of soils with the degradation of the organic matter present.
In a sense, one of the activities that has been used for a long time, is the burning of plant material mainly on forage surfaces, some farmers use it to clean some surfaces with accumulated plant material, weed control, pest control and pasture renewal as some plants have underground organs and have the possibility to survive the fire, this can lead to an alteration of the ecosystem and some microorganisms can be affected in the layers of the topmost soil and logically causes air pollution.
On the other hand, logging also becomes an activity that can threaten the balance of ecosystems, since sometimes it is carried out indiscriminately eradicating total plant cover present, which is a mistake, which can usually be seen in livestock systems, reducing the recycling of nutrients by there is a loss of organic matter generated by the leaves of trees and the only alternative that agriculture sees to restore fertility is the use of fertilizers.
As for the use of fertilizers, in some agro-ecosystems the large quantities of these products can be leached by precipitation to natural water sources which can alter according to Vasquez and Orozco (2008), the aquatic flora and fauna, the researchers point out that the increase of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen can cause a proliferation of aquatic plants such as the water lily, which causes the reduction of beneficial flora found in water bodies.
Similarly, another activity that can affect ecosystems is the introduction of species from other ecosystems, an activity that has become very common in some parts of the world for pest control, which consists in releasing natural enemies from some insect pests, but these can become harmful to other crops in the same area or surrounding areas.
Dear readers, it was possible to show other agricultural practices that can alter natural ecosystems when handled excessively, but the idea is to conserve nature by producing food without causing destruction or imbalances, not all natural ecosystems are the same so some can be more affected than others by intensively applying this type of agronomic management. To know this, an ecological diagnosis should be made as mentioned in previous articles, in this way you can know the productive, biological and ecological potential of the ecosystem, which ensures that agricultural activities are carried out without significantly altering their balance.
From agrotechnics, we continue to bet on education as a fundamental tool to socialize all aspects related to the conservation of ecosystems implementing ecological alternatives and thus reduce the use of agro-toxics, Likewise, the government should establish agrarian programs to strengthen agro-productive agro-ecological, because without any doubt a trained and assisted producer will be a conscious farmer.
- Vázquez, C. and Orozco, A (2008). The destruction of nature. Omega. Science, Volume 2.
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