Cartesi - The Fusion of Linux & Blockchain Technology

in blockchain •  last month 

Cartesi is a computer platform with its main function to develop and deploy decentralized applications within a certain scale. It is capable of running decentralized applications on Linux without the limitation of blockchain computation. That makes Cartesi as the only one off-chain computer system that can be verified by blockchain. It provides a wide array of software that can be used effortlessly from within the 30 years of development. Without any limitation of the blockchain computation as well as corresponding fees, running real-world computations on Linux is pretty beneficial in many ways. It is a great solution to run much needed mainstream computations on Linux.

There has been nothing else available today that could service the same function as Cartesi. Most importantly that ultimate innovation and function of Cartesi has been specified properly and then reviewed thoroughly as well. The review has been posted in form of an academic research project that will really display the idea of Cartesi and its capability. With Cartesi on hands, intensive computations will no longer be expensive, restrictive, and slow anymore. Moreover it is guaranteed to be really safe upon the use of Cartesi on Linux even with a heavy computation along the way.

The Behind of Cartesi

Just before it is in its form today, Cartesi was just a thought with few minds working on it for a couple of years. Erick de Moura is the technical leader behind project Cartesi. He has deep experience within the vast scope of system design and development especially in dealing with process definition, software architecture and process execution. He has been within the industry for 20 years and has become key elements for some tech companies’ success stories. That is definitely the key within the development of Cartesi until it can be optimally used today.

Along with Erick de Moura, there is Augusto Teixeira as the Chief Scientific Officer of the team. Probability and graph theory are his specialties while he is an expert in crypto-economics as well. There have been 28 publications along with his career. He has been successful in connecting the architecture of Cartesian to the Ethereum as well as Turing-complete blockchains system. Diego Nehab is another name in the team who is an expert in image processing, computer graphics, and massive parallelism. All along with his career he owned 3 patents and published 36 scientific papers and articles with over 1900 citations of those.

Colin Steil is the COO of the team who has been joining the team very early in 2017. Since then he has been continuously developing blockchain technology within the team. He also works to develop ICO projects and cryptocurrency exchanges at the same time. One last name within the main roster of the team behind Cartesi is Marco Mirabella as the Chief Business Development Officer. The experience in building and developing businesses in Asia has been the main strength of Marco to be involved in project Cartesi all along. Marco even joined the team from the year of 2016 just before the system of Cartesi machines started to be developed back then. It is only reasonable that Cartesi could be well-designed and created under those names.

The Root of Problem

The ultimate problems out there regarding the so-called public blockchains are the poor state of scalability and the lack of solid environment for the development of the systems. Following the increasing demands of the underlying infrastructure related to blockchain technology are quite a lot out there with many new applications of blockchain today. In terms of scalability, the main issue is the need of every transaction to be verified by every participant. That makes it really inefficient as a process. Meanwhile, the issue with the environment for the development is that no reproducible model of computation to support the fast and vast modern operating systems along with the apps around.

Why is it that such a lack of a solid environment is a problem? Basically there is no software application that can be built in an isolated system. Any applications for mobile, desktop and web that can be found today in their popularity were built within the dependencies on software. That will take decades to really be matured and optimized within the scope of Linux system. In short, that is the problem of a solid environment lacking within the scope of developing applications without the use of Cartesi machines along the way. Moreover, a bit more specific idea in terms of the other problem is the fact that there is an actual limit on progressing when it comes to blockchain so that developers cannot really unleash their creativity even to create fulfilling applications for a wide array of users out there.

Cartesi Solution & Feature

Dealing with those issues as mentioned and explained previously is actually the main purpose of Cartesi as it was designed and researched back in 2017. The machine of Cartesi will be able to solve the problems by first offering a set of tools and software in full support of Linux that developers can make use of them for the best output from them. Secondly, Cartesi will initiate all of the heavy computation off-chain in which blockchains cannot do them at all. Previously without the presence of Cartesi engine that really is impossible to do since off-chain is not supported by Linux. The third solution offered by Cartesi engine is the complete set of services that can be obtained through the use of a token economy namely CTSI. That will make users able to rely on the entire network and system provided by
Cartesi without any possible inconvenience previously presented by various techs of blockchain without Cartesi.

It may well be slightly complicated in describing the way Cartesi work to deal with those mentioned problems earlier on though. The common and normal way of mainstream computations involve billions or even trillions of steps with large amounts of data involved as well. In short, blockchains do not support that because those computations will not be in a match with the computational throughput capacity of any blockchain. So without Cartesi that is how it works.

The Cartesi machine has its basic function to move anything large and complicated off-chain within the scope of an environment of Linux operating system. Of course Cartesi makes it the way it should be able to be verified by blockchain as if it remains on-chain. It is possible that dishonest parties could be identified by the system though. In that case Cartesi will make use of the basic system of blockchain to find and punish those parties. As for the matter that Cartesi could somewhat bypass the blockchain there is the so-called Verification Game implementation done by it. In comparison to other solutions within the well-known Layer-2 system, there are no other options that could provide benefits as comfortable and as worriless as Cartesi.

It is important to really know about the system itself before being able to really make the most of it. Cartesi is a Layer-2 solution in which it has its differences with other Layer-2 solutions and some Layer-1 solutions out there. The differences can be classified even as the good things about this Cartesi system. Amidst the known Layer-1 solutions out there the common thing is that they boost the processing power of transaction of the blockchain. Unfortunately it is inevitable that the transactions will remain in need of global consensus to be done. When smart contracts demands growth beyond a certain limit, the initial cost to finally reach the so-called global consensus may grow in a linear way as well. In the end that could lead to a highly restrictive and super infeasible system.

Meanwhile, the Cartesi system will only try to reach the consensus of the local scope directed to the computation on hand. So basically there will only be the users with interest in doing a certain computation who will be responsible for the off-chain computation through the Cartesi system. That will solve the issue of global consensus of Layer-1 solutions clearly. Some of the popular options of Layer-1 solutions today are DPoS, Sharding, BFT, and PBFT varieties. Each one of those provides advantages and disadvantages to notice. Fortunately, each one of them can be combined with Cartesi seamlessly to get the benefits of both at the same time.

Aside of Cartesi there have been come other Layer-2 solutions proposed to deal with the problems of blockchain. State Channels and Plasma are amidst the available Layer-2 solutions today. The use of either one of those solutions will still need blockchain to resolve disputes when they are exiting or closing. Heavy computations may well be replayed under the on-chain system as the worst possible outcome of the disputes. It is pretty much the same as with the Layer-1 solutions that Cartesi can be integrated seamlessly with those Layer-2 solutions. Thus when the disputes happen, Cartesi will deal with them so that nothing will happen as the outcome of the disputes.

Cartesi Token aka CTSI

Related to the system of Cartesi machine there is the so-called Cartesi Token. It is commonly known as CTSI. This CTSI thing has been designed to properly overcome any possible challenges in basic form when it comes to blockchain. Clearly the challenges to face in blockchain involve scalability and usability in which that has been mentioned earlier as well. Basically the PoS protocols will be the key element within Cartesi Network to be able to provide much-required services by Cartesi users in form of temporary data storage for the DApps as well as optimized side-chain for high throughput within the system. Moreover, CTSI provides its function in the incentive protocol of Cartesi. Most importantly CTSI will be very useful in capturing most of the available value within the ecosystem of DApp. That will isolate all of the DApp developers as well as its users away from any possible instability within the long run of various blockchains.

It is very crucial to use the so-called local or native token in which CTSI is presented for DApp developers and other Cartesi users. The need of such token is due to the fact that few algorithms within the overall system of Cartesi Network are actually based on the PoS protocols as mentioned earlier. The security clearance of those protocols rely highly on the even distribution assumption of the token itself especially within those who are operating Cartesi Node. The initial distribution of CTSI will provide 1,000,000,000 of the CTSI in which new CTSI will be minted periodically. That is needed in order to deal with the services offered in the future by the PoS system so that Worker Nodes can be rated in terms of their participation.

There is a really unique system within the Cartesi machine that actually allows participation rate maximization along the way. Of course that is without the high level of inflation since such thing is limited so that individual economic preferences of the workers can be expressed properly. The system is very adaptable as well that in can either inflates or deflates respectably in response to the number of people using the Cartesi network itself especially to earn some profit on their own.


Project Cartesi was started back in the year 2017 with the idea of providing a better platform for developers, specifically DApp developers worldwide. The Cartesi Core that has been released along with the first Cartesi DApp really shows the possibility of this platform to help those developers to be more creative and innovative. Building such compelling products will no longer be a problem to be faced by DApp developers. Supports have been provided as well in form of installation tools along with complete documentation and tutorial to make the most out of Cartesi. With the power of Cartesi, blockchain could bring a decent set of opportunities and innovation at the same time to be maximized by its users. The system will continue to be developed with the schedule of more things to be released in the near future for more potentials of blockchain to be unleashed and released widely.

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