GMO Mosquito Studies

I have been seeing a lot of GMO Mosquito clickbait lately but I like to read the papers.


"May 1st, 2020 Announcement. We are delighted with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) decision to grant Oxitec an Experimental Use Permit (EUP) for piloting its 2nd generation Friendly™ Aedes aegypti mosquito technology, the result of an in-depth and rigorous scientific review process that included technical support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and an expansive assessment of the technology and its safety relating to humans and the environment."

Review Scholarly Articles

28 Risk Analysis of Transgenic Insects: Techniques and Applications

'Advancements in technology have allowed scientists to modify the genetic makeup and physical traits of insects and other arthropods, primarily through a method called transgenic modification. This approach provides extensive possibilities for altering insect pests to benefit human health and agriculture. With precise DNA modifications and gene drive techniques, it is now possible to make wild-type populations less harmful in ways that were not achievable with earlier methods. As the field moves beyond laboratory research towards practical applications, there is a greater need for modeling, ethical considerations, and regulatory oversight.'*

A quote from ResearchGate;

"Insect transgenesis promises improvements in agriculture, pharmaceuticals and public health. Many important insects can now be routinely transformed with effectors that have useful applications. Agriculture presents the largest market for transgenic insects and has a foundational history of success with sterile insect technique for control of pests including Mediterranean fruit flies and screwworms. Biotechnology will contribute superior markers, suppressible sterility and sex-conversion. Public health is also seeing transgenic mosquitoes developed which suppress natural populations and are incapable of transmitting disease. Experts in the field will contribute their insights into the latest technology and its applications. Authors will also consider the larger risks, social and economic aspects of transgenic insects whose value must be proven in political, regulatory and public acceptance arenas."

Using RNA interference to develop dengue virus resistance in genetically modified Aedes aegypti

'Scientists have genetically modified mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) to make them less capable of transmitting dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). They achieved this by leveraging a natural defense mechanism called RNA interference (RNAi). The researchers created a modified gene that produces a specific type of RNA, derived from a region of the DENV-2 genome. This RNA, known as inverted-repeat (IR) RNA, is expressed in the mosquito's midgut epithelial cells after it consumes a blood meal, using a specific promoter gene. The modified genes were inserted into the mosquito's genome using a transformation system. The resulting transgenic mosquitoes, called Carb77, exhibited a reduction in viral envelope antigen in their midguts and salivary glands after being infected with DENV-2. Further analysis showed that most Carb77 mosquitoes had limited ability to support virus replication and transmit the virus. The presence of DENV-2-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in the mosquito's midgut confirmed that the resistance to DENV-2 was triggered by an RNAi response. The development of transgenic A. aegypti mosquitoes with high resistance to DENV-2 provides a valuable tool for implementing strategies to control the transmission of dengue viruses, such as population replacement techniques.'*

Engineering RNA interference-based resistance to dengue virus type 2 in genetically modified Aedes aegypti

Genetically Modified Aedes aegypti to Control Dengue: A Review,472346f663f7f2e2,271075861a9d93c7.html

Factors Influencing Stakeholders Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Aedes Mosquito

'The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence stakeholders' attitudes towards GM Aedes mosquitoes and analyze the relationships between these factors using a structural equation model. A survey was conducted involving 509 respondents from different stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. The results of the survey indicate that public perception regarding complex issues like gene technology is multifaceted. The balance between perceived benefits and perceived risks is a key determinant of attitudes towards GM mosquitoes. In this study, stakeholders perceived the benefits of GM mosquitoes as outweighing the risks, making perceived benefits the most influential factor in shaping attitudes. Trust in key players directly influences attitudes, while moral concern indirectly influences attitudes through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes towards technology and nature also indirectly contribute to attitudes towards GM mosquitoes, while religiosity and engagement do not play significant roles.'*

Open Field Release of Genetically Engineered Sterile Male Aedes aegypti in Malaysia

Mass Production of Genetically Modified Aedes aegypti for Field Releases in Brazil

A Zika virus-responsive sensor-effector system in Aedes aegypti

Transgene-induced cell death following dengue-2 virus infection in Aedes aegypti

'Transgene-induced cell death occurs when a specific gene is activated in mosquito cells infected with dengue-2 virus. This virus, transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, causes millions of human infections annually and poses a challenge for public health systems worldwide. Controlling Aedes aegypti is difficult due to their abundance and resistance to insecticides. To address this, researchers have explored a new strategy to create dengue-resistant mosquitoes by genetically modifying them to express an inactive form of a protein called Michelob_x (Mx). This inactive form of Mx becomes activated when it encounters actively replicating dengue-2 virus, leading to the induction of cell death (apoptosis) in those infected cells. The researchers observed that mosquitoes carrying this transgenic modification had a higher mortality rate when infected with dengue-2 virus compared to non-transgenic mosquitoes. In laboratory experiments, they also observed the activation of Mx protein in mosquito cells infected with the virus. This study demonstrates the concept that virus infection can be utilized to trigger cell death in infected mosquito cells, offering a potential approach for reducing the disease burden caused by dengue.'*

CRISPR–Cas9 Methods and Key Considerations in the
Production of Aedes aegypti Mutant Strains

Efficient Sex Separation by Exploiting Differential Alternative Splicing of a Dominant Marker in Aedes aegypti

'Female mosquitoes are the ones that bite and spread dangerous diseases, so it's crucial to separate them from males when using genetic methods for controlling their population. In this study, researchers have developed a reliable method called SEPARATOR (Sexing Element Produced by Alternative RNA-splicing of A Transgenic Observable Reporter) to sort mosquitoes by sex. They achieved this by taking advantage of a specific genetic marker that undergoes different splicing patterns in males and females, resulting in dominant male-specific expression. The SEPARATOR technique successfully identified and sorted male mosquitoes at both larval and pupal stages. The researchers also used a high-throughput analysis system to select male larvae efficiently. Furthermore, they analyzed the gene expression profiles of male and female larvae, identifying several genes that were specifically expressed in males. This method has the potential to simplify the mass production of male mosquitoes for population control programs. It is designed to be applicable across different mosquito species and could greatly contribute to genetic interventions for mosquito control.'*


How do you feel about using Genetically Modified Mosquitos to prevent diseases?