How Printers Work? - Electrostatic Magic



Hello StemSocial Community! Welcome to my blog. Charges are one of the most important species in the chemical World. They play a key role in the transfer of electrons and many other Physical Phenomena. Today I visited a Photocopier Shop where I witnessed one of the most Important Physical Phenomena called Electrostatic. The Photocopier machine works on the principle of Electrostatic that I shall elaborate today.


Electrostatic is the study of charges at rest. It can be best described by Coulomb's Law. It is the most important Physical Phenomena that plays a key role in many things happening in our nature especially in Ink Injector and Printing Machine.


Coulomb's Law

The force of attraction or repulsion between two charges is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

     F = K q1q2/d2

Here, q indicates the magnitude of charges while K is Electrostatic Constant whose value is constant under specific physical conditions and d indicates Scalor Value for distance.

  1. Two different charges attract each other.
  2. Two same charges repel each other.
  3. The force of attraction or repulsion is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

After discovery of Electrostatic, Coulomb's Law has provided different direction to explain the working of Printer Machine. When I was Photocopier Shop, my my mind was rotating between topics like image processing, formation, ink cartridge etc. Hence I decided to explain, one of the important implication of Electrostatic in Printing Machine, Xerox machines

Xerox Machine

The word Xerox is derived from the term Xerography. Xero means dry while graphos means writing. It is the simplest photocopier machine. It works on the Electrostatic.



It has selenium coated drum. Selenium is insulator that works as metal in the presence of light while works like non-metal in the darkness.

The surface of the drum is exposed to the image of the concerned object that is going to be copied. Where the image is light, +ve charge is neutralized and where the image is dark then selenium drum works like insulator and positive charges remain there. Then dry black powder called toner is released with negative charge. Both opposite charges attract each other on the surface of the drum. Meanwhile blank page is given more positive charge than the positive charge on the surface of the drum. It attracts all toner from the drum. Then different rollers pressed all the paper and toner melts, leaving a permanent impression on the paper. It is the simplest working mechanism done by Xerox Machines.


Physics is magic in our nature. Due to its courtesy, we have Electrostatic. This Electrostatic not only helped us in printing papers but also it has big role in the painting and electrocoating of cars and different vehicles. The working of Xerox machines will be a surprise for people who are unaware about the important physical phenomena called Electrostatic hence I've decided to explore this topic here. I hope, you have enjoyed my elaboration about Coulomb's Law and Electrostatic. For any query or question, you can drop your comment I shall try my best to answer as soon as possible. Moreover, you can increase your knowledge about this fascinating topic by watching YouTube videos, I shared here as well some source related to the topic.


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